Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and ethnocentrism: a study of social identity versus multicultural theory of development.Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2003 Nov; 9(4):333-44.CD
Social identity theory (SIT) proposes that the more strongly individuals identify with their group, the less favorable attitudes they hold toward dissimilar groups. In contrast, multicultural theory proposes that affirmation toward one's group--particularly with respect to ethnicity--should correspond with higher levels of acceptance toward dissimilar groups. These competing theories were examined with 486 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic/Latino university students to determine if support would be found for either theory. Consistent with SIT, levels of ethnic identity correlated significantly with levels of ethnocentrism for Whites and Hispanics but not for African Americans. African Americans obtained significantly higher ethnic identity and self-esteem scores than the other 2 groups. Implications of the findings are discussed.