Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of oral gatifloxacin for the treatment of recurrent/nonresponsive acute otitis media: an open label, noncomparative, double tympanocentesis study.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Nov; 22(11):943-9.PI
Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone with good activity against respiratory pathogens.
To document the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin in recurrent/nonresponsive acute otitis media (AOM).
One hundred sixty patients 6 to 48 months of age with recurrent/nonresponsive AOM received gatifloxacin suspension (10 mg/kg once daily for 10 days). Recurrent AOM was defined as > or =3 AOM episodes during the previous 6 months or > or =4 AOM episodes during the previous 12 months. Nonresponsive AOM was defined as AOM occurring < or =14 days after completing antibiotic treatment or not improving after > or =48 h of therapy. Middle ear fluid (MEF) obtained by tympanocentesis pretreatment (Day 1) and 3 to 5 days after initiation of treatment (Days 4 to 6) was cultured. Additional MEF cultures were obtained if clinical failure or recurrence of AOM occurred. Bacteriologic failure was defined by culture-positive MEF during treatment. Patients were followed until Days 22 to 28. Susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution.
One hundred twenty-eight (80%) patients completed treatment, and 32 discontinued the study prematurely (adverse events, 17; lost to follow-up, 10; consent withdrawal, 3; and laboratory abnormalities, 2). From 89 patients (median age, 1 year; median number of prior AOM episodes, 4; range, 0 to 12), 121 pathogens were recovered: Haemophilus influenzae, 74 (61%); Streptococcus pneumoniae, 36 (30%); Moraxella catarrhalis, 9 (7%); and Streptococcus pyogenes, 2 (2%). The 36 S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC50 0.25 microg/ml); 26 of 36 (72%) were penicillin-nonsusceptible (15 fully resistant). All 74 H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC < or = 0.03 mg/ml). Fourteen of 74 (19%) and 9 of 9 (100%) H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates, respectively, produced beta-lactamase. Bacteriologic eradication was achieved for 118 of 121 (98%) pathogens: 74 of 74 H. influenzae; 34 of 36 (94%) S. pneumoniae; 9 of 9 M. catarrhalis; and 1 of 2 S. pyogenes. Clinical improvement/cure at end of treatment was seen in 103 of 114 (90%) clinically evaluable patients. Clinical recurrence of AOM after completion of therapy occurred in 31 patients. Of the 27 recurrent AOM cases in which tympanocentesis was performed, there were 16 (59%) new infections, 4 (15%) culture-negative results and only 7 (26%) true bacteriologic relapses. Adverse events were recorded in 21 of 160 (13%) patients: vomiting, 16; diarrhea, 3; maculopapular rash, 2. No articular adverse events were recorded.
Gatifloxacin is efficacious and safe for the treatment of recurrent/nonresponsive AOM.