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Ghrelin concentrations in healthy children and adolescents.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003; 59(5):649-54CE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

In addition to its regulation by GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, release of GH from the pituitary is modulated by a third factor, ghrelin, which is expressed in high concentration in the stomach and is present in the circulation. Ghrelin has also been shown to cause weight gain by increasing food intake and decreasing fat utilization. Ghrelin is a potential candidate hormone to influence nutrient intake and growth. Its role through normal childhood and adolescence has not been fully defined.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study in 121 healthy children (65 male, 56 female) aged 5-18 years, in whom height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status and measurements of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-1 and leptin were available.

METHODS

Serum ghrelin concentrations have been measured in radioimmunoassay (RIA; Phoenix, AZ, USA) that detects active and inactive human ghrelin. Relationships between ghrelin and anthropometric data and growth factors were assessed by correlation and regression analyses.

RESULTS

Ghrelin was detected in all samples, with a median concentration of 162 pg/ml, range 60-493 pg/ml. Prepubertal children had higher ghrelin concentrations than those in puberty [218 pg/ml (n = 42) and 157 pg/ml (n = 79), P < 0.001], with significant negative correlations between ghrelin and age (rs = -0.39, P < 0.001) and pubertal stage (rs = -0.42, P < 0.001). The decrease in ghrelin with advancing pubertal stage/age was more marked in boys than girls. In the whole group, ghrelin was negatively correlated to BMI SD (rs = -0.24, P = 0.006) and to weight SD (rs = -0.24, P = 0.008) but not height sds. Ghrelin was also negatively correlated to IGF-I (rs = -0.48, P < 0.001), IGFBP-3 (rs = -0.32, P < 0.001) and leptin (rs = -0.22, P = 0.02) but not IGF-II. It was positively related to IGFBP-1 (rs = +0.46, P < 0.001). In stepwise multiple regression, 30% of the variability in ghrelin through childhood could be accounted for by log IGF-I (24%) and log IGFBP-1 (6%).

CONCLUSIONS

The fall in ghrelin over childhood and with puberty does not suggest that it is a direct growth-promoting hormone. However in view of the negative relationship with IGF-I and the positive relationship with IGFBP-1, this fall in ghrelin could facilitate growth acceleration over puberty.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Endocrine Science Research Group, University of Manchester, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14616891

Citation

Whatmore, A J., et al. "Ghrelin Concentrations in Healthy Children and Adolescents." Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 5, 2003, pp. 649-54.
Whatmore AJ, Hall CM, Jones J, et al. Ghrelin concentrations in healthy children and adolescents. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;59(5):649-54.
Whatmore, A. J., Hall, C. M., Jones, J., Westwood, M., & Clayton, P. E. (2003). Ghrelin concentrations in healthy children and adolescents. Clinical Endocrinology, 59(5), pp. 649-54.
Whatmore AJ, et al. Ghrelin Concentrations in Healthy Children and Adolescents. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;59(5):649-54. PubMed PMID: 14616891.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ghrelin concentrations in healthy children and adolescents. AU - Whatmore,A J, AU - Hall,C M, AU - Jones,J, AU - Westwood,M, AU - Clayton,P E, PY - 2003/11/18/pubmed PY - 2004/2/6/medline PY - 2003/11/18/entrez SP - 649 EP - 54 JF - Clinical endocrinology JO - Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) VL - 59 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: In addition to its regulation by GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, release of GH from the pituitary is modulated by a third factor, ghrelin, which is expressed in high concentration in the stomach and is present in the circulation. Ghrelin has also been shown to cause weight gain by increasing food intake and decreasing fat utilization. Ghrelin is a potential candidate hormone to influence nutrient intake and growth. Its role through normal childhood and adolescence has not been fully defined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in 121 healthy children (65 male, 56 female) aged 5-18 years, in whom height, weight, body mass index (BMI), pubertal status and measurements of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-1 and leptin were available. METHODS: Serum ghrelin concentrations have been measured in radioimmunoassay (RIA; Phoenix, AZ, USA) that detects active and inactive human ghrelin. Relationships between ghrelin and anthropometric data and growth factors were assessed by correlation and regression analyses. RESULTS: Ghrelin was detected in all samples, with a median concentration of 162 pg/ml, range 60-493 pg/ml. Prepubertal children had higher ghrelin concentrations than those in puberty [218 pg/ml (n = 42) and 157 pg/ml (n = 79), P < 0.001], with significant negative correlations between ghrelin and age (rs = -0.39, P < 0.001) and pubertal stage (rs = -0.42, P < 0.001). The decrease in ghrelin with advancing pubertal stage/age was more marked in boys than girls. In the whole group, ghrelin was negatively correlated to BMI SD (rs = -0.24, P = 0.006) and to weight SD (rs = -0.24, P = 0.008) but not height sds. Ghrelin was also negatively correlated to IGF-I (rs = -0.48, P < 0.001), IGFBP-3 (rs = -0.32, P < 0.001) and leptin (rs = -0.22, P = 0.02) but not IGF-II. It was positively related to IGFBP-1 (rs = +0.46, P < 0.001). In stepwise multiple regression, 30% of the variability in ghrelin through childhood could be accounted for by log IGF-I (24%) and log IGFBP-1 (6%). CONCLUSIONS: The fall in ghrelin over childhood and with puberty does not suggest that it is a direct growth-promoting hormone. However in view of the negative relationship with IGF-I and the positive relationship with IGFBP-1, this fall in ghrelin could facilitate growth acceleration over puberty. SN - 0300-0664 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14616891/Ghrelin_concentrations_in_healthy_children_and_adolescents_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&amp;sid=nlm:pubmed&amp;issn=0300-0664&amp;date=2003&amp;volume=59&amp;issue=5&amp;spage=649 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -