Ages of onset and rates of syndromal and subsyndromal comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses in a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003 Dec; 42(12):1486-93.JA
To study rates and ages of onset of DSM-IV syndromal and subsyndromal comorbidity in a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype (PEA-BP) (N = 93) compared to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 81).
The WASH-U-KSADS was given by raters blinded to subject group separately to mothers about their children and to children about themselves. PEA-BP was defined as DSM-IV mania with at least one cardinal symptom of mania (elation or grandiosity) to avoid diagnosing using only symptoms that overlapped with those for ADHD. Syndromal diagnoses required a CGAS score of 60 or less to ensure severity at a level of definite "caseness."
PEA-BP subjects were aged 10.9 (SD = 2.6) at baseline and 6.8 (SD = 3.4) at onset of first mania episode. Rates of oppositional defiant disorder and total number of comorbidities were significantly higher in the PEA-BP group than the ADHD group. In PEA-BP subjects, mean ages of onset of ADHD occurred before the first manic episode, and obsessive compulsive, oppositional defiant, social phobia, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and conduct disorders occurred after.
Onsets of ADHD before mania and of oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder after mania have clinical and research implications. These include the need to examine for mania symptoms in children with ADHD and/or oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder and to develop scales to differentiate preschool mania from ADHD. Comparison with other studies demonstrated the importance of DSM system and severity scales in reporting comorbidity rates.