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High ultraviolet A protection affords greater immune protection confirming that ultraviolet A contributes to photoimmunosuppression in humans.
J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Oct; 121(4):869-75.JI

Abstract

Solar radiation causes immunosuppression that contributes to skin cancer growth. Photoprotective strategies initially focused on the more erythemogenic ultraviolet B. More recently, the relationship of ultraviolet A and skin cancer has received increased attention. We hypothesized that if ultraviolet A contributes significantly to human ultraviolet-induced immune suppression, then increased ultraviolet A filtration by a sunscreen would better protect the immune system during ultraviolet exposure. Two hundred and eleven volunteers were randomized into study groups and received solar-simulated radiation, ranging from 0 to 2 minimum erythema dose, on gluteal skin, with or without sunscreen, 48 h prior to sensitization with dinitrochlorobenzene. Contact hypersensitivity response was evaluated by measuring the increase in skin fold thickness of five graded dinitrochlorobenzene challenge sites on the arm, 2 wk after sensitization. Clinical scoring using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group method was also performed. Solar-simulated radiation dose-response curves were generated and immune protection factor was calculated using a nonlinear regression model. Significance of immune protection between study groups was determined with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon exact test. The sunscreen with high ultraviolet A absorption (ultraviolet A protection factor of 10, based on the in vivo persistent pigment darkening method) and a labeled sun protection factor of 15 demonstrated better immune protection than the product that had a low ultraviolet A absorption (ultraviolet A protection factor of 2) and a labeled sun protection factor of 15. Nonlinear regression analysis based on skin fold thickness increase revealed that the high ultraviolet A protection factor sunscreen had an immune protection factor of 50, more than three times its sun protection factor, whereas the low ultraviolet A protection factor sunscreen had an immune protection factor of 15, which was equal to its labeled sun protection factor. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet A contributes greatly to human immune suppression and that a broad-spectrum sunscreen with high ultraviolet A filtering capacity results in immune protection that exceeds erythema protection. These results show that high ultraviolet A protection is required to protect against ultraviolet-induced damage to cutaneous immunity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland/Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. edb4@po.cwru.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14632207

Citation

Baron, Elma D., et al. "High Ultraviolet a Protection Affords Greater Immune Protection Confirming That Ultraviolet a Contributes to Photoimmunosuppression in Humans." The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 121, no. 4, 2003, pp. 869-75.
Baron ED, Fourtanier A, Compan D, et al. High ultraviolet A protection affords greater immune protection confirming that ultraviolet A contributes to photoimmunosuppression in humans. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121(4):869-75.
Baron, E. D., Fourtanier, A., Compan, D., Medaisko, C., Cooper, K. D., & Stevens, S. R. (2003). High ultraviolet A protection affords greater immune protection confirming that ultraviolet A contributes to photoimmunosuppression in humans. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 121(4), 869-75.
Baron ED, et al. High Ultraviolet a Protection Affords Greater Immune Protection Confirming That Ultraviolet a Contributes to Photoimmunosuppression in Humans. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121(4):869-75. PubMed PMID: 14632207.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High ultraviolet A protection affords greater immune protection confirming that ultraviolet A contributes to photoimmunosuppression in humans. AU - Baron,Elma D, AU - Fourtanier,Anny, AU - Compan,Delphine, AU - Medaisko,Chantal, AU - Cooper,Kevin D, AU - Stevens,Seth R, PY - 2003/11/25/pubmed PY - 2003/12/13/medline PY - 2003/11/25/entrez SP - 869 EP - 75 JF - The Journal of investigative dermatology JO - J Invest Dermatol VL - 121 IS - 4 N2 - Solar radiation causes immunosuppression that contributes to skin cancer growth. Photoprotective strategies initially focused on the more erythemogenic ultraviolet B. More recently, the relationship of ultraviolet A and skin cancer has received increased attention. We hypothesized that if ultraviolet A contributes significantly to human ultraviolet-induced immune suppression, then increased ultraviolet A filtration by a sunscreen would better protect the immune system during ultraviolet exposure. Two hundred and eleven volunteers were randomized into study groups and received solar-simulated radiation, ranging from 0 to 2 minimum erythema dose, on gluteal skin, with or without sunscreen, 48 h prior to sensitization with dinitrochlorobenzene. Contact hypersensitivity response was evaluated by measuring the increase in skin fold thickness of five graded dinitrochlorobenzene challenge sites on the arm, 2 wk after sensitization. Clinical scoring using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group method was also performed. Solar-simulated radiation dose-response curves were generated and immune protection factor was calculated using a nonlinear regression model. Significance of immune protection between study groups was determined with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon exact test. The sunscreen with high ultraviolet A absorption (ultraviolet A protection factor of 10, based on the in vivo persistent pigment darkening method) and a labeled sun protection factor of 15 demonstrated better immune protection than the product that had a low ultraviolet A absorption (ultraviolet A protection factor of 2) and a labeled sun protection factor of 15. Nonlinear regression analysis based on skin fold thickness increase revealed that the high ultraviolet A protection factor sunscreen had an immune protection factor of 50, more than three times its sun protection factor, whereas the low ultraviolet A protection factor sunscreen had an immune protection factor of 15, which was equal to its labeled sun protection factor. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet A contributes greatly to human immune suppression and that a broad-spectrum sunscreen with high ultraviolet A filtering capacity results in immune protection that exceeds erythema protection. These results show that high ultraviolet A protection is required to protect against ultraviolet-induced damage to cutaneous immunity. SN - 0022-202X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14632207/High_ultraviolet_A_protection_affords_greater_immune_protection_confirming_that_ultraviolet_A_contributes_to_photoimmunosuppression_in_humans_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -