Chemical sensitization and regulation of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in a panel of B-lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines.Br J Haematol. 2003 Dec; 123(5):921-32.BJ
Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) effectively kills tumour cells but not normal cells. We investigated TRAIL sensitivity and the TRAIL-induced apoptosis signalling pathway in a panel of B-lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines. Depending upon TRAIL sensitivity, leukaemia cells could be divided into three groups: highly sensitive, moderately sensitive and resistant. TRAIL receptor-2 (DR5) plays an important role in transducing apoptosis signals. DR5 was internalized into the cytoplasm where it recruited FAS-associated death domain protein (FADD) under TRAIL stimulation in both sensitive and resistant cells. However, the active form of caspase-8 was recruited to FADD and only sensitive cells showed increased caspase-8 activity upon TRAIL stimulation. The caspase-8 specific inhibitor, Z-IETD, impaired caspase-8 activation and completely abrogated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that TRAIL resistance in B-lymphocytic leukaemia cells is due to negative regulation at the level of caspase-8 activation and that caspase-8 activation is an indispensable process in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. However, FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) was similarly expressed and down-regulated after TRAIL stimulation in both sensitive and resistant cells. Interestingly, in some cell lines, TRAIL sensitivity and caspase-8 activity was enhanced or restored with the treatment of cycloheximide (CHX). In addition, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) levels decreased significantly and rapidly following treatment with CHX. Down-regulation of XIAP may be responsible for enhancement or restoration of TRAIL sensitivity after CHX treatment in B-lymphocytic leukaemia cells.