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Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Int J Cancer 2004; 108(2):269-76IJ

Abstract

Intake of fruits and vegetables is thought to protect against the development of lung cancer. However, some recent cohort and case-control studies have shown no protective effect. We have assessed the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence in the large prospective investigation on diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 478,021 individuals that took part in the EPIC study, who were recruited from 10 European countries and who completed a dietary questionnaire during 1992-1998. Follow-up was to December 1998 or 1999, but for some centres with active follow-up to June 2002. During follow-up, 1,074 participants were reported to have developed lung cancer, of whom 860 were eligible for our analysis. We used the Cox proportional hazard model to determine the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on the incidence of lung cancer. We paid particular attention to adjustment for smoking. Relative risk estimates were obtained using fruit and vegetable intake categorised by sex-specific, cohort-wide quintiles. After adjustment for age, smoking, height, weight and gender, there was a significant inverse association between fruit consumption and lung cancer risk: the hazard ratio for the highest quintile of consumption relative to the lowest being 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval 0.46-0.78), p for trend 0.0099. The association was strongest in the Northern Europe centres, and among current smokers at baseline, and was strengthened when the 293 lung cancers diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded from the analysis. There was no association between vegetable consumption or vegetable subtypes and lung cancer risk. The findings from this analysis can be regarded as re-enforcing recommendations with regard to enhanced fruit consumption for populations. However, the effect is likely to be small compared to smoking cessation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany. a.miller@dkfz-heidelberg.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14639614

Citation

Miller, Anthony B., et al. "Fruits and Vegetables and Lung Cancer: Findings From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition." International Journal of Cancer, vol. 108, no. 2, 2004, pp. 269-76.
Miller AB, Altenburg HP, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, et al. Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2004;108(2):269-76.
Miller, A. B., Altenburg, H. P., Bueno-de-Mesquita, B., Boshuizen, H. C., Agudo, A., Berrino, F., ... Palli, D. (2004). Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. International Journal of Cancer, 108(2), pp. 269-76.
Miller AB, et al. Fruits and Vegetables and Lung Cancer: Findings From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 10;108(2):269-76. PubMed PMID: 14639614.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fruits and vegetables and lung cancer: Findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. AU - Miller,Anthony B, AU - Altenburg,Hans-Peter, AU - Bueno-de-Mesquita,Bas, AU - Boshuizen,Hendriek C, AU - Agudo,Antonio, AU - Berrino,Franco, AU - Gram,Inger Torhild, AU - Janson,Lars, AU - Linseisen,Jacob, AU - Overvad,Kim, AU - Rasmuson,Torgney, AU - Vineis,Paolo, AU - Lukanova,Annekatrin, AU - Allen,Naomi, AU - Amiano,Pilar, AU - Barricarte,Aurelio, AU - Berglund,Göran, AU - Boeing,Heiner, AU - Clavel-Chapelon,Françoise, AU - Day,Nicholas E, AU - Hallmans,Göran, AU - Lund,Eiliv, AU - Martinez,Carmen, AU - Navarro,Carmen, AU - Palli,Domenico, AU - Panico,Salvatore, AU - Peeters,Petra H M, AU - Quirós,José Ramón, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Tumino,Rosario, AU - Trichopoulou,Antonia, AU - Trichopoulos,Dimitrios, AU - Slimani,Nadia, AU - Riboli,Elio, AU - Palli,Dominico, PY - 2003/11/26/pubmed PY - 2004/1/9/medline PY - 2003/11/26/entrez SP - 269 EP - 76 JF - International journal of cancer JO - Int. J. Cancer VL - 108 IS - 2 N2 - Intake of fruits and vegetables is thought to protect against the development of lung cancer. However, some recent cohort and case-control studies have shown no protective effect. We have assessed the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence in the large prospective investigation on diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 478,021 individuals that took part in the EPIC study, who were recruited from 10 European countries and who completed a dietary questionnaire during 1992-1998. Follow-up was to December 1998 or 1999, but for some centres with active follow-up to June 2002. During follow-up, 1,074 participants were reported to have developed lung cancer, of whom 860 were eligible for our analysis. We used the Cox proportional hazard model to determine the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on the incidence of lung cancer. We paid particular attention to adjustment for smoking. Relative risk estimates were obtained using fruit and vegetable intake categorised by sex-specific, cohort-wide quintiles. After adjustment for age, smoking, height, weight and gender, there was a significant inverse association between fruit consumption and lung cancer risk: the hazard ratio for the highest quintile of consumption relative to the lowest being 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval 0.46-0.78), p for trend 0.0099. The association was strongest in the Northern Europe centres, and among current smokers at baseline, and was strengthened when the 293 lung cancers diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded from the analysis. There was no association between vegetable consumption or vegetable subtypes and lung cancer risk. The findings from this analysis can be regarded as re-enforcing recommendations with regard to enhanced fruit consumption for populations. However, the effect is likely to be small compared to smoking cessation. SN - 0020-7136 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14639614/Fruits_and_vegetables_and_lung_cancer:_Findings_from_the_European_Prospective_Investigation_into_Cancer_and_Nutrition_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.11559 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -