Tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and cytoadhesive molecules in patients with an acute coronary syndrome.Physiol Res. 2003; 52(6):719-28.PR
The tissue factor plays a crucial role in initiating blood coagulation after plaque rupture in patients with acute coronary syndrome. It is abundant in atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, P-selectin, some cytokines, endotoxin and immune complexes can stimulate monocytes and induce the tissue factor expression on their surface. The aim of the study was to compare plasma levels of the tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, P-selectin, E-selectin and ICAM-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stable coronary artery disease and normal control subjects. In addition, plasma levels of the tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, P-selectin, E-selectin and ICAM-1 were measured in the blood withdrawn from the coronary sinus in a subgroup of patients with unstable angina pectoris and stable coronary artery disease in which the difference between concentrations in the coronary sinus and systemic blood was calculated. A significant increase in tissue factor pathway inhibitor plasma levels was detected in patients with acute myocardial infarction (373.3+/-135.1 ng/ml, p<0.01) and unstable angina pectoris (119.6+/-86.9 ng/ml, p<0.05) in contrast to the patients with stable coronary artery disease (46.3+/-37.5 ng/ml) and normal subjects (45.1+/-14.3 ng/ml). The plasma levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor were significantly increased both in the coronary sinus and systemic blood in the patients with unstable angina pectoris. There was only a non-significant trend to higher plasma levels of the tissue factor in patients with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris as compared to the patients with stable coronary artery disease and normal subjects, the values being 129.1+/-30.2 pg/ml, 130.5+/-57.8 pg/ml, 120.2+/-45.1 pg/ml and 124.9+/-31.8 pg/ml, respectively. Plasma levels of soluble P-selectin was only slightly, but non-significantly higher in patients with unstable angina pectoris and stable coronary artery disease (184.2+/-85.4 ng/ml and 201.6+/-67.9 ng/ml, respectively) than in patients with the acute myocardial infarction (157.4+/-88.4 ng/ml) or normal subjects (151.4+/-47.1 ng/ml). The difference in plasma levels of soluble ICAM-1 between the blood withdrawn from the coronary sinus and systemic circulation correlated significantly with the corresponding difference in plasma levels of soluble P-selectin and E-selectin. In conclusion, the tissue factor and the tissue factor pathway inhibitor play a crucial role in the initiation of arterial thrombosis. The tissue factor pathway inhibitor levels are increased both in the systemic blood and in the coronary sinus of patients with the acute coronary syndrome.