American ginseng leaf: ginsenoside analysis and hypoglycemic activity.Pharmacol Res. 2004 Feb; 49(2):113-7.PR
Previous studies showed that both American ginseng root and American ginseng berry extracts possess hypoglycemic properties. In this study, we investigated whether American ginseng leaves also have similar capabilities. We first analyzed the chemical constituents of American ginseng leaf and determined the content of six major ginsenosides, i.e., Rb(1), Rb(2), Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg(1), by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subsequently, we evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of American ginseng leaf extract (AGLE) in diabetic ob/ob adult mice. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of AGLE 50, 150 mg/kg or vehicle for 12 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose levels, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), body weight and temperature were measured. On day 5, the 150 mg/kg AGLE group had significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels compared to vehicle-treated mice (223.0+/-13.9 mg/dl versus 258.0+/-14.0 mg/dl, P<0.05), while the blood glucose levels in 50 mg/kg group did not decrease significantly. On day 12, the glucose levels in both AGLE-treated groups were reduced significantly compared to vehicle group (180.0+/-10.0 mg/dl and 220.2+/-19.3 versus 268.0+/-10.0 mg/dl, P<0.01 and <0.05, respectively). IPGTT data showed that both AGLE 150 and 50 mg/kg groups significantly increased the glucose disposal on day 12 compared to the vehicle group. In addition, body weight decreased in ob/ob mice after AGLE treatment, and these body weight changes were accompanied by significant increases in body temperature (P<0.05). Our results suggest that AGLE possesses a significant anti-hyperglycemic and thermogenic activity and may prove to be beneficial in improving the management of type 2 diabetes.