Caspase-dependent apoptosis and -independent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage induced by transforming growth factor beta1.
Apoptosis is an important cell suicide program which involves the caspases activation and is implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage is often associated with apoptosis and has been served as one hallmark of apoptosis and caspase activation. In this study, we aimed to determine TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and to examine the involvement of caspases and its relationship with PARP cleavage. TGF-beta1 induces strong apoptosis of AML-12 cells which can be detected by DNA fragmentation, FACS, and morphological assays. Z-VAD-fmk, a selective caspase inhibitor, partially inhibits the TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis; but has no effect on TGF-beta1-induced DNA fragmentation and PARP cleavage. However, BD-fmk, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, completely suppresses TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis, but unexpectedly does not inhibit TGF-beta1-induced PARP cleavage. Furthermore, Z-VAD-fmk treatment is able to completely inhibit the daunorubicin-induced apoptosis in A-431 cells, but only slightly blocks the daunorubicin-induced PARP cleavage, whereas BD-fmk can inhibit both daunorubicin-induced apoptosis and PARP cleavage completely. In addition, we observed that both TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis and PARP degradation in AML-12 cells can be completely blocked by inhibiting the protein synthesis with cycloheximide. These results demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis is associated with caspase-independent PARP cleavage that requires the TGF-beta1-induced synthesis of new proteins. The results indicate that caspase-3 is not a major caspase involved in TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in AML-12 cells, and is not required for apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation. The results also suggest that PARP cleavage may occur as an independent event that can be disassociated with cell apoptosis.
Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-Yang Road, 200031, Shanghai, China.,
MeSHAmino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones
Protein Kinase C
Protein Kinase C-delta
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Transforming Growth Factor beta1
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't