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An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women.
J Am Diet Assoc 2003; 103(12):1600-6JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine whether a very low-fat diet (<15% of energy intake) consumed ad libitum during an 8-month period can achieve weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight while still providing adequate intakes of other essential nutrients.

DESIGN

Longitudinal, 8-month, ad libitum, free living, very low-fat diet trial.

SUBJECTS

Fifty-four of the sixty-four healthy postmenopausal women recruited completed the entire study (age 59+/-8 years, BMI=29.6+/-6.3). Twenty-four of these women used hormone replacement therapy, thirty women did not.

INTERVENTION

Weekly sessions aimed at teaching and reinforcing a very low-fat intake diet for eight months. MAIN: outcome measures Body weight, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and nutrient intakes derived from 7-day food records at the beginning and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of the study. Statistical analysis performed Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc analysis were used to analyze significant differences in mean data (P<.05).

RESULTS

Fat intake decreased from 33.2+/-7.5% to 11+/-4% over the 8-month intervention period (P<.00001). Weight loss was 6.0 kg+/- 4.2 kg (P<.000038), an 8% weight change, and decrease in percent body fat of 2.7%+/-0.2% (P< or =.000046). Weight correlated better with the self-reported fat intake (r=0.321, P<.01) than the energy intake (r=0.263, P<.05) at baseline. Fiber intake increased from 16 g+/-0.6 g to 23 g+/-0.2 g (P<.0005). All micronutrient intakes remained at or above preintervention ranges, except for a decrease in vitamin E intake from 8.1 mg+/-4.0 mg to 3.7 mg+/-1.1 mg (P<.0005) on the very low-fat diet and linoleic acid from 6.3%+/-1.5% to 2.5%+/-0.7% (P<.000001) with no significant reduction in linolenic acid. Hormone replacement was not associated with the amount of weight loss.

APPLICATIONS

This study demonstrates that adherence to a very low-fat diet consumed ad libitum causes weight loss in the 5% to 10% range and a reduction of body fat. These reductions, along with the observed decreases in fat intake, are associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the decreased vitamin E and n-3 fatty acid intake, emphasis on foods high in these nutrients may need to be encouraged for those consuming a very low-fat diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Family & Consumers Sciences, California State University, Sacramento, 95819-6053, uSA. wcunningham@csus.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14647085

Citation

Mueller-Cunningham, Wendy M., et al. "An Ad Libitum, Very Low-fat Diet Results in Weight Loss and Changes in Nutrient Intakes in Postmenopausal Women." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 103, no. 12, 2003, pp. 1600-6.
Mueller-Cunningham WM, Quintana R, Kasim-Karakas SE. An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(12):1600-6.
Mueller-Cunningham, W. M., Quintana, R., & Kasim-Karakas, S. E. (2003). An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(12), pp. 1600-6.
Mueller-Cunningham WM, Quintana R, Kasim-Karakas SE. An Ad Libitum, Very Low-fat Diet Results in Weight Loss and Changes in Nutrient Intakes in Postmenopausal Women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(12):1600-6. PubMed PMID: 14647085.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women. AU - Mueller-Cunningham,Wendy M, AU - Quintana,Roberto, AU - Kasim-Karakas,Sidika E, PY - 2003/12/4/pubmed PY - 2004/1/21/medline PY - 2003/12/4/entrez SP - 1600 EP - 6 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 103 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a very low-fat diet (<15% of energy intake) consumed ad libitum during an 8-month period can achieve weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight while still providing adequate intakes of other essential nutrients. DESIGN: Longitudinal, 8-month, ad libitum, free living, very low-fat diet trial. SUBJECTS: Fifty-four of the sixty-four healthy postmenopausal women recruited completed the entire study (age 59+/-8 years, BMI=29.6+/-6.3). Twenty-four of these women used hormone replacement therapy, thirty women did not. INTERVENTION: Weekly sessions aimed at teaching and reinforcing a very low-fat intake diet for eight months. MAIN: outcome measures Body weight, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and nutrient intakes derived from 7-day food records at the beginning and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of the study. Statistical analysis performed Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc analysis were used to analyze significant differences in mean data (P<.05). RESULTS: Fat intake decreased from 33.2+/-7.5% to 11+/-4% over the 8-month intervention period (P<.00001). Weight loss was 6.0 kg+/- 4.2 kg (P<.000038), an 8% weight change, and decrease in percent body fat of 2.7%+/-0.2% (P< or =.000046). Weight correlated better with the self-reported fat intake (r=0.321, P<.01) than the energy intake (r=0.263, P<.05) at baseline. Fiber intake increased from 16 g+/-0.6 g to 23 g+/-0.2 g (P<.0005). All micronutrient intakes remained at or above preintervention ranges, except for a decrease in vitamin E intake from 8.1 mg+/-4.0 mg to 3.7 mg+/-1.1 mg (P<.0005) on the very low-fat diet and linoleic acid from 6.3%+/-1.5% to 2.5%+/-0.7% (P<.000001) with no significant reduction in linolenic acid. Hormone replacement was not associated with the amount of weight loss. APPLICATIONS: This study demonstrates that adherence to a very low-fat diet consumed ad libitum causes weight loss in the 5% to 10% range and a reduction of body fat. These reductions, along with the observed decreases in fat intake, are associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the decreased vitamin E and n-3 fatty acid intake, emphasis on foods high in these nutrients may need to be encouraged for those consuming a very low-fat diet. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14647085/An_ad_libitum_very_low_fat_diet_results_in_weight_loss_and_changes_in_nutrient_intakes_in_postmenopausal_women_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822303013609 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -