Effect of meal sequence on postprandial lipid, glucose and insulin responses in young men.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec; 57(12):1536-44.EJ
To investigate whether the postprandial changes in plasma triacylglycerol (TAG), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and insulin concentrations in young men were the same if an identical meal was fed at breakfast and lunch, and if the response to lunch was modified by consumption of breakfast.
In two trials (1 and 2) healthy subjects (age 22+/-1 y, body mass index 22+/-2 kg/m(2)) were fed the same mixed macronutrient meal at breakfast at 08:00 h and lunch at 14:00 h. In the third trial, no breakfast was fed and the overnight fast extended until lunch at 14:00 h. Addition of [1,1,1-(13)C]tripalmitin to one meal in each trial was used to distinguish between endogenous and meal-derived lipids.
The postprandial changes in TAG, NEFA and glucose concentrations were similar in trials 1 and 2. The change in plasma total TAG concentration was about two fold less (P<0.05) after lunch compared to breakfast. Postprandial NEFA suppression was the same after breakfast and lunch. Glucose and insulin responses were significantly greater following lunch suggesting decreasing insulin sensitivity during the day. Consumption of breakfast did not alter the postprandial total TAG or NEFA responses after lunch. Measurement of [(13)C]palmitic acid concentration showed that handling of TAG and NEFA from the meal was the same after breakfast and lunch, and was not altered by consumption of breakfast.
Overall, these data suggest that in young, healthy men regulation of plasma TAG from endogenous sources, principally VLDL, but not chylomicrons during the postprandial period leads to differences in the magnitude of lipaemic response when the same meal was consumed at breakfast or at lunch 6 h later.