A practical approach to increasing intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: use of novel foods enriched with n-3 fats.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec; 57(12):1605-12.EJ
To assess the effects of providing a wide range of foodstuffs containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), occurring naturally or from fortification, on intake and blood and tissue proportions of n-3 PUFA.
Before/after dietary intervention study.
16 healthy males recruited from the community.
Subjects were provided with a range of foodstuffs naturally containing n-3 PUFA (fresh fish, canned fish, flaxseed meal, canola oil) and items fortified with fish oil (margarine spread, milk, sausages, luncheon meat, french onion dip). Food choices were left to the discretion of each subject. Intake was estimated by diet diary. Blood was collected at-2, 0, 2, and 4 weeks for fatty acid analysis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Dietary intakes; plasma, platelet, and mononuclear cell phospholipid fatty acids.
Consumption of n-3 PUFA increased significantly: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from 1.4 to 4.1 g/day (P<0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from 0.03 to 0.51 g/day (P<0.001), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from 0.09 to 1.01 g/day (P<0.001). Linoleic acid (LA) intake decreased from 13.1 to 9.2 g/day (P<0.001). The proportions of EPA and DHA increased significantly in all phospholipid pools examined; plasma EPA from 1.13% of total fatty acids to 3.38% (P<0.001) and DHA from 3.76 to 7.23% (P<0.001); mononuclear cell EPA from 0.40 to 1.25% (P<0.001) and DHA from 2.33 to 4.08% (P<0.001); platelet EPA from 0.41 to 1.2% (P<0.001) and DHA from 1.64 to 3.07% (P<0.001).
Incorporating fish oil into a range of novel commercial foods provides the opportunity for wider public consumption of n-3 PUFA with their associated health benefits.
Dawes Scholarship, Royal Adelaide Hospital.