Analytical separations in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.Electrophoresis. 2003 Dec; 24(22-23):3917-34.E
This review represents a summary of recent progress in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) for chiral and achiral separations. The OT-CEC approach is an alternative to packed-CEC that could eliminate the problems associated with retaining frits and silica particles. In OT-CEC, the stationary phase is immobilized on the inner walls of the capillary. Preparation of the stationary phase is critical for OT-CEC. The preparation methods for capillary columns include (i) adsorption, (ii) covalent bonding and/or cross-linking, (iii) porous layers, (iv) chemical bonding after etching, (v) sol-gel, and (vi) molecular imprinting. Major developments, potential applications, technical difficulties and advantages associated with these wall coatings in OT-CEC are presented. In addition, the coupling of OT-CEC with mass spectrometry (MS) is briefly reviewed. Several applications of this hyphenated technique for analytical separations are also summarized.