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Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Individuals with early or intermediate stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) make up a large, growing segment of the elderly population. Evidence is sparse regarding modifiable factors that may decrease the risk of progression to the advanced forms of AMD.

OBJECTIVE

To advise patients with a high risk for advanced forms of AMD about preventive measures through our evaluation of the relationship between dietary fat intake and the progression of early or intermediate AMD to the advanced stages of the disease associated with visual loss.

DESIGN

A prospective cohort study with an average follow-up time of 4.6 years.

SETTING

A hospital-based clinical retinal practice specializing in macular degeneration. Patients The 261 participants were aged 60 years and older and had some sign of nonexudative AMD and visual acuity of 20/200 or better in at least 1 eye. Main Outcome Measure Progression to advanced AMD, which was defined as having geographic atrophy or neovascular disease.

RESULTS

Higher total fat intake increased the risk of progression to the advanced forms of AMD, with a relative risk (RR) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-7.32) for the highest fat-intake quartile relative to the lowest fat-intake quartile, after controlling for other factors (P trend =.01). Animal fat intake was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of progression (RR, 2.29 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-5.72), although the trend for increasing risk with higher animal fat intake was not significant (P=.09). Higher vegetable fat intake had a stronger relationship with increased risk of AMD progression with an RR of 3.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-9.28) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile (P trend =.003). Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and transunsaturated fats increased the likelihood of progression (RR, 2.09 and P trend =.08; RR, 2.21 and P trend =.04; RR, 2.28 and P trend =.04; RR, 2.39 and P trend =.008, respectively). Higher fish intake was associated with a lower risk of AMD progression among subjects with lower linoleic acid intake. Processed baked goods, which are higher in some of these fats, increased the rate of AMD progression approximately 2-fold, and nuts were protective.

CONCLUSIONS

Among individuals with the early or intermediate stages of AMD, total and specific types of fat intake, as well as some fat-containing food groups, modified the risk of progression to advanced AMD. Fish intake and nuts reduced risk. Since advanced AMD is associated with visual loss and reduced quality of life, these preventive measures deserve additional research and greater emphasis.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Epidemiology Unit, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachesetts 02114, USA. johanna_seddon@meei.harvard.edi

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Animals
    Cohort Studies
    Diet
    Diet Records
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Disease Progression
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Fish Products
    Humans
    Macular Degeneration
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nuts
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14662593

    Citation

    Seddon, Johanna M., et al. "Progression of Age-related Macular Degeneration: Association With Dietary Fat, Transunsaturated Fat, Nuts, and Fish Intake." Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), vol. 121, no. 12, 2003, pp. 1728-37.
    Seddon JM, Cote J, Rosner B. Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(12):1728-37.
    Seddon, J. M., Cote, J., & Rosner, B. (2003). Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake. Archives of Ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), 121(12), pp. 1728-37.
    Seddon JM, Cote J, Rosner B. Progression of Age-related Macular Degeneration: Association With Dietary Fat, Transunsaturated Fat, Nuts, and Fish Intake. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(12):1728-37. PubMed PMID: 14662593.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Progression of age-related macular degeneration: association with dietary fat, transunsaturated fat, nuts, and fish intake. AU - Seddon,Johanna M, AU - Cote,Jennifer, AU - Rosner,Bernard, PY - 2003/12/10/pubmed PY - 2004/1/6/medline PY - 2003/12/10/entrez SP - 1728 EP - 37 JF - Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) JO - Arch. Ophthalmol. VL - 121 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Individuals with early or intermediate stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) make up a large, growing segment of the elderly population. Evidence is sparse regarding modifiable factors that may decrease the risk of progression to the advanced forms of AMD. OBJECTIVE: To advise patients with a high risk for advanced forms of AMD about preventive measures through our evaluation of the relationship between dietary fat intake and the progression of early or intermediate AMD to the advanced stages of the disease associated with visual loss. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study with an average follow-up time of 4.6 years. SETTING: A hospital-based clinical retinal practice specializing in macular degeneration. Patients The 261 participants were aged 60 years and older and had some sign of nonexudative AMD and visual acuity of 20/200 or better in at least 1 eye. Main Outcome Measure Progression to advanced AMD, which was defined as having geographic atrophy or neovascular disease. RESULTS: Higher total fat intake increased the risk of progression to the advanced forms of AMD, with a relative risk (RR) of 2.90 (95% confidence interval, 1.15-7.32) for the highest fat-intake quartile relative to the lowest fat-intake quartile, after controlling for other factors (P trend =.01). Animal fat intake was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of progression (RR, 2.29 for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-5.72), although the trend for increasing risk with higher animal fat intake was not significant (P=.09). Higher vegetable fat intake had a stronger relationship with increased risk of AMD progression with an RR of 3.82 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-9.28) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile (P trend =.003). Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and transunsaturated fats increased the likelihood of progression (RR, 2.09 and P trend =.08; RR, 2.21 and P trend =.04; RR, 2.28 and P trend =.04; RR, 2.39 and P trend =.008, respectively). Higher fish intake was associated with a lower risk of AMD progression among subjects with lower linoleic acid intake. Processed baked goods, which are higher in some of these fats, increased the rate of AMD progression approximately 2-fold, and nuts were protective. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with the early or intermediate stages of AMD, total and specific types of fat intake, as well as some fat-containing food groups, modified the risk of progression to advanced AMD. Fish intake and nuts reduced risk. Since advanced AMD is associated with visual loss and reduced quality of life, these preventive measures deserve additional research and greater emphasis. SN - 0003-9950 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14662593/Progression_of_age_related_macular_degeneration:_association_with_dietary_fat_transunsaturated_fat_nuts_and_fish_intake_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaophthalmology/fullarticle/vol/121/pg/1728 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -