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Nutritional risk predictors of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a preclinical prodrome during which beta cell autoimmunity proceeds at a variable rate. Large geographic differences and a conspicuous increase in incidence, especially among young children since the 1950s, and the relatively low concordance in identical twins are factors that favor a critical role of environmental factors in the etiology of this disease. Only approximately 5% or fewer subjects with HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes actually develop the clinical disease. Breastfeeding, nicotinamide, zinc, and vitamins C, D, and E have been reported as possibly protecting against type 1 diabetes, whereas N-nitroso compounds, cow milk, increased linear growth, and obesity may increase the risk. Thus far, only the significance of infant feeding, cow milk, and vitamin D have been studied in both case-control and cohort settings. The major shortcoming of most studies done so far is that only single dietary exposures have been assessed at single time points. Putative nutritional and other confounding factors have received little attention as have the limitations of the dietary methods used. There is little firm evidence of the significance of nutritional factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. The availability of good markers of preclinical type 1 diabetes and of genetic risk have decreased the sample sizes needed and made longitudinal cohort studies of the assessment of children's diets feasible.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland. suvi.virtanen@ktl.fi

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Autoimmunity
    Breast Feeding
    Case-Control Studies
    Child
    Cohort Studies
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
    Environmental Exposure
    Genetic Predisposition to Disease
    HLA Antigens
    Humans
    Islets of Langerhans
    Milk
    Risk Factors
    Weight Gain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14668264

    Citation

    Virtanen, Suvi M., and Mikael Knip. "Nutritional Risk Predictors of Beta Cell Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes at a Young Age." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 6, 2003, pp. 1053-67.
    Virtanen SM, Knip M. Nutritional risk predictors of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(6):1053-67.
    Virtanen, S. M., & Knip, M. (2003). Nutritional risk predictors of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(6), pp. 1053-67.
    Virtanen SM, Knip M. Nutritional Risk Predictors of Beta Cell Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes at a Young Age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(6):1053-67. PubMed PMID: 14668264.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional risk predictors of beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes at a young age. AU - Virtanen,Suvi M, AU - Knip,Mikael, PY - 2003/12/12/pubmed PY - 2004/1/6/medline PY - 2003/12/12/entrez SP - 1053 EP - 67 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 78 IS - 6 N2 - Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a preclinical prodrome during which beta cell autoimmunity proceeds at a variable rate. Large geographic differences and a conspicuous increase in incidence, especially among young children since the 1950s, and the relatively low concordance in identical twins are factors that favor a critical role of environmental factors in the etiology of this disease. Only approximately 5% or fewer subjects with HLA-conferred genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes actually develop the clinical disease. Breastfeeding, nicotinamide, zinc, and vitamins C, D, and E have been reported as possibly protecting against type 1 diabetes, whereas N-nitroso compounds, cow milk, increased linear growth, and obesity may increase the risk. Thus far, only the significance of infant feeding, cow milk, and vitamin D have been studied in both case-control and cohort settings. The major shortcoming of most studies done so far is that only single dietary exposures have been assessed at single time points. Putative nutritional and other confounding factors have received little attention as have the limitations of the dietary methods used. There is little firm evidence of the significance of nutritional factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. The availability of good markers of preclinical type 1 diabetes and of genetic risk have decreased the sample sizes needed and made longitudinal cohort studies of the assessment of children's diets feasible. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14668264/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/78.6.1053 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -