Concentrations and ratios of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA enantiomers determined in plasma samples from clinical toxicology and driving under the influence of drugs cases by GC-NICI-MS.J Anal Toxicol. 2003 Nov-Dec; 27(8):552-9.JA
Enantiomers of amphetamine (AM), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) exhibit different pharmacological properties. This may be important for the interpretation of analytical results. Plasma samples were analyzed using validated negative ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedures. The results for clinical toxicology cases, divided into screening (SCR) and intoxication (ITX) cases, and those of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases were compared. The concentrations of all enantiomers, except R-(-)-MDA and R-(-)- and S-(+)-MA, in the SCR samples were lower than in ITX and DUID samples. Differences between concentrations in ITX and DUID samples were only significant for both enantiomers of AM (DUID higher). These findings suggested impairment in drugged drivers. Different enantiomer ratios (R vs. S) were found for AM between DUID and SCR samples, for MDMA between ITX and SCR samples, and for MDA between DUID and ITX and DUID and SCR samples. Higher MDMA enantiomer ratios in SCR compared to ITX samples are in accordance with a previously described increase of those ratios over time, possibly allowing differentiation of recent from nonrecent ingestion. Pharmacokinetic analysis of a MDMA poisoning yielded elimination half-lives of 6.0 h for R-(-)-MDMA and 4.1 h for S-(+)-MDMA. The enantiomer ratios rose exponentially over time.