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Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003; 12(4):460-6.AP

Abstract

This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in a poor urban population of Bangladesh. It also examined the association of various socio-economic and dietary factors with anaemia and vitamin A status. A maternal and child health clinic in Dhaka city, Bangladesh was used to obtain the sample. Three hundred and eighty three pregnant women, aged 20-30 years, of 20-30 weeks gestation were randomly selected from women on their first presentation for antenatal care. Socio-economic, pregnancy related information, usual dietary pattern and anthropometric data were collected. Blood haemoglobin and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentrations were determined. About 40% of the pregnant women were anaemic (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dl) and 45% had low serum vitamin A levels (<30 microg/dl); with 8.6% having sub-clinical VAD (serum retinol <20 microg/dl). The women with low serum vitamin A levels had 1.8 times greater risk of being anaemic than did the women with normal vitamin A status. Food frequency data revealed that a large proportion of these women did not consume egg (49%), milk (25%), meat (31%), liver (83%), large fish (32%), small fish (39%) and sweet pumpkin (52%) at all; while about 25% of the women reported consuming dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 64% reported an intake of fruit at least four servings a week. The pregnant women who were either illiterate or received only informal education (up to grade ten) had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who completed at least a secondary school certificate. The women whose husbands were illiterate or received only informal education had significantly (P= 0.01) lower serum vitamin A levels than those whose husbands had received at least a secondary school certificate. The women who came from families with a per-capita income below the poverty line had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who came from families with a per-capita income above the poverty line. The women who consumed three servings or less of DGLV and fruit per week had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels than those who consumed four or more servings a week. The women who never consumed large fish had significantly lower haemoglobin compared to those who reported at least one serving a week. Furthermore, the women who never consumed sweet pumpkin had significantly lower serum vitamin A than the women who ate at least one serving a week. By multiple regression analysis, intake of meat, DGLV and fruit, and serum vitamin A levels were found to have a significant independent relationship with haemoglobin. The overall F-ratio (9.9) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.086 (multiple R=0.309). Multiple regression analysis for serum vitamin A also revealed a significant independent relationship with per capita income, haemoglobin levels, intakes of DGLV and sweet pumpkin. The overall F-ratio (10.2) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.10 (multiple R=0.312). In conclusion, anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were highly prevalent among poor urban pregnant women in Bangladesh. Various socio-economic and dietary factors may influence the anaemia and vitamin A status of these women. The present study emphasizes the need for a comprehensive intervention strategy, which include both nutritional and environmental factors, to improve the nutritional status of this population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition Program, Division of International Health, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD 4029, Australia. F.Ahmed@sph.uq.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14672871

Citation

Ahmed, Faruk, et al. "Anaemia and Vitamin a Deficiency in Poor Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh." Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 4, 2003, pp. 460-6.
Ahmed F, Mahmuda I, Sattar A, et al. Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(4):460-6.
Ahmed, F., Mahmuda, I., Sattar, A., & Akhtaruzzaman, M. (2003). Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 12(4), 460-6.
Ahmed F, et al. Anaemia and Vitamin a Deficiency in Poor Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(4):460-6. PubMed PMID: 14672871.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in poor urban pregnant women of Bangladesh. AU - Ahmed,Faruk, AU - Mahmuda,Ismat, AU - Sattar,Abeda, AU - Akhtaruzzaman,Md, PY - 2003/12/16/pubmed PY - 2006/4/20/medline PY - 2003/12/16/entrez SP - 460 EP - 6 JF - Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition JO - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr VL - 12 IS - 4 N2 - This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) among pregnant women in a poor urban population of Bangladesh. It also examined the association of various socio-economic and dietary factors with anaemia and vitamin A status. A maternal and child health clinic in Dhaka city, Bangladesh was used to obtain the sample. Three hundred and eighty three pregnant women, aged 20-30 years, of 20-30 weeks gestation were randomly selected from women on their first presentation for antenatal care. Socio-economic, pregnancy related information, usual dietary pattern and anthropometric data were collected. Blood haemoglobin and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentrations were determined. About 40% of the pregnant women were anaemic (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dl) and 45% had low serum vitamin A levels (<30 microg/dl); with 8.6% having sub-clinical VAD (serum retinol <20 microg/dl). The women with low serum vitamin A levels had 1.8 times greater risk of being anaemic than did the women with normal vitamin A status. Food frequency data revealed that a large proportion of these women did not consume egg (49%), milk (25%), meat (31%), liver (83%), large fish (32%), small fish (39%) and sweet pumpkin (52%) at all; while about 25% of the women reported consuming dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) and 64% reported an intake of fruit at least four servings a week. The pregnant women who were either illiterate or received only informal education (up to grade ten) had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who completed at least a secondary school certificate. The women whose husbands were illiterate or received only informal education had significantly (P= 0.01) lower serum vitamin A levels than those whose husbands had received at least a secondary school certificate. The women who came from families with a per-capita income below the poverty line had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels compared to those who came from families with a per-capita income above the poverty line. The women who consumed three servings or less of DGLV and fruit per week had significantly lower haemoglobin and serum vitamin A levels than those who consumed four or more servings a week. The women who never consumed large fish had significantly lower haemoglobin compared to those who reported at least one serving a week. Furthermore, the women who never consumed sweet pumpkin had significantly lower serum vitamin A than the women who ate at least one serving a week. By multiple regression analysis, intake of meat, DGLV and fruit, and serum vitamin A levels were found to have a significant independent relationship with haemoglobin. The overall F-ratio (9.9) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.086 (multiple R=0.309). Multiple regression analysis for serum vitamin A also revealed a significant independent relationship with per capita income, haemoglobin levels, intakes of DGLV and sweet pumpkin. The overall F-ratio (10.2) was highly significant (P=0.000), the adjusted R-square was 0.10 (multiple R=0.312). In conclusion, anaemia and vitamin A deficiency were highly prevalent among poor urban pregnant women in Bangladesh. Various socio-economic and dietary factors may influence the anaemia and vitamin A status of these women. The present study emphasizes the need for a comprehensive intervention strategy, which include both nutritional and environmental factors, to improve the nutritional status of this population. SN - 0964-7058 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14672871/Anaemia_and_vitamin_A_deficiency_in_poor_urban_pregnant_women_of_Bangladesh_ L2 - http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/12/4/460.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -