Risk for smoking-related cancer among relatives of lung cancer patients.Cancer Res 2003; 63(23):8531-5CR
Studies of familial aggregation of cancer provide indirect evidence for the role of genetic predisposition to cancer. In an ongoing case-control study, we evaluated whether first-degree relatives of lung cancer cases are at increased risk of lung and other cancers. Smoking-related cancers were defined as cancers of the lung, bladder, head and neck, kidney, and pancreas. The 806 probands included in this analysis were patients referred to The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX). We identified 663 controls, matched to the cases on age (+/-5 years), sex, ethnicity, and smoking history, who were recruited from a local multispecialty physician practice in the Houston metropolitan area. Self-reported cancer family history data were available for 6430 first-degree relatives of the cases and 4936 first-degree relatives of the controls. An excess of cancer in relatives was evaluated by comparing the observed cancer cases among relatives of the cases with relatives of the controls. We conducted further analysis after stratifying on age of lung cancer onset (age at study registration for controls) and smoking status (never, former, or current) of the probands. We also conducted Cox regression analysis and compared time to cancer diagnosis among the relatives of the cases and controls adjusted for age and smoking status of proband and family members. Siblings [relative risk (RR) = 1.85; P = 0.003] of cases had a significant excess of lung cancer and an excess of smoking-related cancers (RR = 1.29; P = 0.01). We observed evidence of familial aggregation (RR = 1.71; P < 0.001) of lung cancer among relatives of late-onset lung cancer cases. From the Cox regression, we observed a moderate risk for development of lung (RR = 1.25; P = 0.09) and other smoking-related cancers (RR = 1.23; P = 0.05). After adjustment for smoking behavior of probands and their relatives, the risks of lung cancer (RR = 1.33; P = 0.03) and smoking-related cancers (RR = 1.28; P = 0.02) were statistically significant. We further stratified on age at onset and observed no evidence (P = 0.81) of familial aggregation of lung cancer among young onset (<or=55 years of age) lung cancer cases. We also did not observe evidence of familial aggregation (P = 0.88) of smoking-related cancers in the same group. There was no evidence of increased risk (P = 0.77) of lung cancer among relatives of never-smokers. These findings support the need for additional study in the characterization and identification of genetic factors that influence and modulate cancer susceptibility in humans.