Effect of NOM characteristics on brominated organics formation by ozonation.Environ Int. 2004 Feb; 29(8):1049-55.EI
In this study, organic fractions, namely, humic acid, fulvic acid, hydrophobic base and neutral, and hydrophilic acid, base, and -neutral, were extracted from source water. First, the characteristics of the organic fractions, such as carboxylic acidity, phenolic acidity, ultraviolet absorbance, and aromatic content, were analyzed. Further, a systematic study was carried out to the by-products obtained when organic fractions, to which various amounts of bromide had been added, were oxidized with ozone. Samples after ozonation were analyzed for several brominated organics. The results indicate that the characteristics of the aquatic organic matter, including carboxylic/phenolic acidity, aromatic/aliphatic content, and ultraviolet absorbance, appear to affect the formation of halogenated organics. In general, hydrophobic organics having higher phenolic acidity, aromatic content, and ultraviolet absorbance have higher ozone consumption and produce higher concentrations of brominated organics than hydrophilic organics. It was also found that humic acid demonstrated the highest bromoform (CHBr(3)), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) formation, whereas hydrophilic neutral produced less CHBr(3) and 2,4-DBP than the rest of the organic fractions but produced the highest amount of dibromoacetone (DBAC) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN).