Oral Kaposi sarcoma associated with severe alveolar bone loss: case report and review of the literature.J Periodontol. 2003 Nov; 74(11):1668-75.JP
In AIDS patients who present with an oral neoplasm, Kaposi sarcoma is the tumor most frequently encountered, comprising 50% to 80% of all tumor occurrences. However, oral Kaposi sarcoma associated with erosion of underlying bone is a relatively rare finding. This report and review of the literature documents a case of AIDS-related oral Kaposi sarcoma exhibiting severe bilateral erosion of the maxillary alveolar ridges.
An HIV-seropositive male with extensive maxillary Kaposi sarcoma and associated bilateral alveolar bone erosion presented for dental evaluation subsequent to radiation therapy. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. Medical and dental histories were procured and supplemented with consultations from the patient's primary physician and radiation oncologist. Maxillary edentulation with surgical revision for primary closure was the treatment of choice for management of the dentoalveolar pathology. A maxillary immediate treatment denture was designed to obturate anticipated antral communications with the maxillary sinus.
Surgical and prosthetic treatments were completed, but complicated by an oral-antral perforation that subsequently healed without complication. Soft tissue biopsies obtained during surgery revealed no evidence of residual Kaposi sarcoma.
Although AIDS-related oral Kaposi sarcoma is a relatively common finding, erosion of subjacent alveolar bone is uncommon. Treatment of the tumor with subsequent dental reconstruction can be complicated by the severe lack of bone, surgical perforation of the maxillary sinus, and lack of stable teeth to serve as abutments. Significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma have occurred in the last decade. HHV-8 and various inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis and are likely to become the primary targets for therapeutic intervention.