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A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003; 12(12):1403-9CE

Abstract

High intake of cruciferous vegetables may offer some protection against prostate cancer, but overall data are inconclusive. Thus, we examined the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Between 1986 and 2000, 2,969 cases of nonstage T1a prostate cancer were diagnosed in 47,365 men who completed dietary assessments in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We calculated the multivariate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox regression. Overall, we found no appreciable association between baseline intake of cruciferous vegetables and risk of prostate cancer (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82-1.05, for > or = 5 versus < or = 1 serving/week; P for trend = 0.30), and only a slight suggestive association for organ-confined prostate cancer (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.05; P for trend = 0.06). The inverse association was stronger for men under the age of 65 years (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P for trend = 0.02), especially for organ-confined cancers (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.97; P for trend = 0.007). In addition, this inverse association was stronger when we restricted the analysis to men with more consistent intake of vegetables over the 10 years before 1986, when we limited the analysis to men who had had a prostate-specific antigen test, and when we considered an 8-year time lag. This study does not provide compelling evidence of a protective influence of cruciferous vegetables on prostate cancer risk. However, if cruciferous vegetables are protective early in prostate carcinogenesis, as suggested by proposed mechanisms, we may expect stronger associations, as observed, for more remote diet for prostate-specific antigen-detected early stage (organ-confined) cancers in younger men. In contrast, for advanced cancers in older men, which were probably initiated decades in the past, recent dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables may be irrelevant. These findings suggest that future studies of cruciferous vegetables should focus on early stages of prostate cancer.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. edward.giovannucci@channing.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14693729

Citation

Giovannucci, Edward, et al. "A Prospective Study of Cruciferous Vegetables and Prostate Cancer." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 12, no. 12, 2003, pp. 1403-9.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, et al. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(12):1403-9.
Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Liu, Y., Stampfer, M. J., & Willett, W. C. (2003). A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 12(12), pp. 1403-9.
Giovannucci E, et al. A Prospective Study of Cruciferous Vegetables and Prostate Cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(12):1403-9. PubMed PMID: 14693729.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. AU - Giovannucci,Edward, AU - Rimm,Eric B, AU - Liu,Yan, AU - Stampfer,Meir J, AU - Willett,Walter C, PY - 2003/12/25/pubmed PY - 2004/4/24/medline PY - 2003/12/25/entrez SP - 1403 EP - 9 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 12 IS - 12 N2 - High intake of cruciferous vegetables may offer some protection against prostate cancer, but overall data are inconclusive. Thus, we examined the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Between 1986 and 2000, 2,969 cases of nonstage T1a prostate cancer were diagnosed in 47,365 men who completed dietary assessments in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We calculated the multivariate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox regression. Overall, we found no appreciable association between baseline intake of cruciferous vegetables and risk of prostate cancer (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.82-1.05, for > or = 5 versus < or = 1 serving/week; P for trend = 0.30), and only a slight suggestive association for organ-confined prostate cancer (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.05; P for trend = 0.06). The inverse association was stronger for men under the age of 65 years (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P for trend = 0.02), especially for organ-confined cancers (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.97; P for trend = 0.007). In addition, this inverse association was stronger when we restricted the analysis to men with more consistent intake of vegetables over the 10 years before 1986, when we limited the analysis to men who had had a prostate-specific antigen test, and when we considered an 8-year time lag. This study does not provide compelling evidence of a protective influence of cruciferous vegetables on prostate cancer risk. However, if cruciferous vegetables are protective early in prostate carcinogenesis, as suggested by proposed mechanisms, we may expect stronger associations, as observed, for more remote diet for prostate-specific antigen-detected early stage (organ-confined) cancers in younger men. In contrast, for advanced cancers in older men, which were probably initiated decades in the past, recent dietary intakes of cruciferous vegetables may be irrelevant. These findings suggest that future studies of cruciferous vegetables should focus on early stages of prostate cancer. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14693729/A_prospective_study_of_cruciferous_vegetables_and_prostate_cancer_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=14693729 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -