Presence of specific viruses in the middle ear fluids and respiratory secretions of young children with acute otitis media.J Med Virol. 2004 Feb; 72(2):241-8.JM
The purpose of the study was to investigate the presence of different viruses in middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal aspirates in young children with acute otitis media. Two cohorts of children (N = 329 and 611) were followed from 2 to 24 months of age in Finland in two prospective studies (Finnish Otitis Media Cohort Study and Finnish Otitis Media Vaccine Trial). During the study period, nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid specimens for each acute otitis media event were examined for eight (Cohort Study) or ten (Vaccine Trial) common respiratory viruses; adenoviruses, influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and rhinoviruses. Picornaviruses (rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, and parechoviruses) were determined by reverse transcription PCR while antigen detection was used for the other viruses. A virus was present in either nasopharyngeal or middle ear specimen in 54% of events in the first cohort and in 67% of events in the second. Rhinoviruses formed the most common virus group detected (41-32%), followed by enteroviruses (25%, sought in the second cohort only) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (10%). All the other viruses represented jointly 8-10% of the events. In conclusion, using the methods described in this study, a specific virus infection was diagnosed in two thirds of all acute otitis media events in young children. Picornavirus RNA was detected in association with more than a half of all acute otitis media events. The use of PCR-based methods for the other respiratory viruses might have increased further the overall virus detection rate in acute otitis media.