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Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jan; 104(1 Suppl 1):s14-21.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To assess the nutrient adequacy of the diets of US infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age.

DESIGN

Descriptive analysis of the usual nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers using 24-hour recall data from the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study.

SUBJECTS

A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers, with 2 days of recall available for 703 sample members. Sample sizes by age were: infants 4 to 6 months (n=862), infants 7 to 11 months (n=1,162), and toddlers 12 to 24 months (n=998).

STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED

Using the personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation, we estimated (where applicable) the percentage of infants and toddlers with usual intakes below the estimated average requirement, compared the means of usual nutrient intake distributions with adequate intake levels, and compared the 99th percentile of usual intake distributions with tolerable upper intake levels.

RESULTS

For infants under 12 months of age, mean usual intakes exceeded the adequate intake for all nutrients. For toddlers 12 to 24 months of age, the estimated prevalence of inadequacy was low for most nutrients; however, 58% of toddlers had usual vitamin E intakes less than the estimated average requirement. Mean energy intake exceeded the estimated energy requirement by 10% for infants 4 to 6 months, 23% for infants 7 to 12 months, and 31% for toddlers 12 to 24 months of age. The discrepancy between mean energy intake and the estimated energy requirement for infants 4 to 6 months of age was larger for infants fed solids than for infants consuming only breast milk or formula. Fiber intakes of toddlers were below the adequate intake.

APPLICATIONS

Studies should examine whether parents overreport foods consumed by infants and toddlers, and whether infants and toddlers are consuming more energy than required. Additional research is indicated to substantiate some of the new Dietary Reference Intakes for infants and children 1 to 3 years of age.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540, USA. bdevaney@mathematica-mpr.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14702013

Citation

Devaney, Barbara, et al. "Nutrient Intakes of Infants and Toddlers." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 104, no. 1 Suppl 1, 2004, pp. s14-21.
Devaney B, Ziegler P, Pac S, et al. Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104(1 Suppl 1):s14-21.
Devaney, B., Ziegler, P., Pac, S., Karwe, V., & Barr, S. I. (2004). Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(1 Suppl 1), s14-21.
Devaney B, et al. Nutrient Intakes of Infants and Toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104(1 Suppl 1):s14-21. PubMed PMID: 14702013.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers. AU - Devaney,Barbara, AU - Ziegler,Paula, AU - Pac,Susan, AU - Karwe,Vatsala, AU - Barr,Susan I, PY - 2004/1/1/pubmed PY - 2004/1/30/medline PY - 2004/1/1/entrez SP - s14 EP - 21 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 104 IS - 1 Suppl 1 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To assess the nutrient adequacy of the diets of US infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of the usual nutrient intakes of infants and toddlers using 24-hour recall data from the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. SUBJECTS: A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers, with 2 days of recall available for 703 sample members. Sample sizes by age were: infants 4 to 6 months (n=862), infants 7 to 11 months (n=1,162), and toddlers 12 to 24 months (n=998). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Using the personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation, we estimated (where applicable) the percentage of infants and toddlers with usual intakes below the estimated average requirement, compared the means of usual nutrient intake distributions with adequate intake levels, and compared the 99th percentile of usual intake distributions with tolerable upper intake levels. RESULTS: For infants under 12 months of age, mean usual intakes exceeded the adequate intake for all nutrients. For toddlers 12 to 24 months of age, the estimated prevalence of inadequacy was low for most nutrients; however, 58% of toddlers had usual vitamin E intakes less than the estimated average requirement. Mean energy intake exceeded the estimated energy requirement by 10% for infants 4 to 6 months, 23% for infants 7 to 12 months, and 31% for toddlers 12 to 24 months of age. The discrepancy between mean energy intake and the estimated energy requirement for infants 4 to 6 months of age was larger for infants fed solids than for infants consuming only breast milk or formula. Fiber intakes of toddlers were below the adequate intake. APPLICATIONS: Studies should examine whether parents overreport foods consumed by infants and toddlers, and whether infants and toddlers are consuming more energy than required. Additional research is indicated to substantiate some of the new Dietary Reference Intakes for infants and children 1 to 3 years of age. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14702013/Nutrient_intakes_of_infants_and_toddlers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002822303014536 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -