Surfactant-facilitated crystallization of dihydrate carbamazepine during dissolution of anhydrous polymorph.J Pharm Sci. 2004 Feb; 93(2):449-60.JP
The influence of two structurally different anionic surfactants on the anhydrous-to-dihydrate transformation of carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated. The surfactants studied were sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a surfactant commonly used in compendial dissolution methods, and sodium taurocholate (STC), an important surfactant in the solubilization and absorption of drugs and lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Results show that both surfactants promoted the crystallization of CBZ dihydrate [CBZ(D)] during dissolution of the anhydrous monoclinic polymorph [CBZ(A)]). Examination of crystal surfaces showed that SLS facilitated the surface-mediated nucleation of CBZ(D) on CBZ(A) crystals at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Solubilization of a dye and related color changes provided visual evidence for adsorbed SLS assemblies on CBZ(A) crystal faces below the cmc. Above the cmc, both surfactants promoted the transformation by increasing the bulk nucleation of CBZ(D). STC changed the crystal morphology of CBZ(D) from acicular to prismatic, depending on STC concentration. Such morphology changes originate from interactions between STC and molecular structures of CBZ(D) crystal faces that interfere with the formation of a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules and carboxamide dimers.