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Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jan; 61(1):62-70.AG

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Associations between depressed mood and hormonal changes during transition to menopause are controversial. To our knowledge, there has been no prospective study of these associations in women commencing when they are premenopausal.

OBJECTIVE

To longitudinally study the associations among reproductive hormones, menopausal status, and other predictors of depressed mood in midlife women.

DESIGN

Cohort study with 6 assessment periods during a 4-year interval. Blood samples were collected 12 times during the follicular phase (days 2-6).

SETTING

Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania.

PARTICIPANTS

A randomly identified, population-based, stratified sample of African American (n = 218) and white (n = 218) women aged 35 to 47 years with regular menstrual cycles, no hormonal or psychotropic medication use, and no serious physical or mental health problems at enrollment.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score and history of depression via the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders.

RESULTS

There was an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms during transition to menopause and a decreased likelihood after menopause after adjustment for other predictors of depression, including history of depression, severe premenstrual syndrome, poor sleep, age, race, and employment status (P =.03). The likelihood of depressive symptoms decreased for individuals with a rapidly increasing follicle-stimulating hormone profile (P< or =.001) and also decreased with age compared with premenopausal women (P =.02). Participant aggregate profiles with increasing estradiol levels were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in bivariate analysis (P =.053).

CONCLUSIONS

Depressive symptoms as assessed herein increased during transition to menopause and decreased in postmenopausal women. Hormone associations provided corroborating evidence that the changing hormonal milieu contributes to dysphoric mood during transition to menopause.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Mudd Suite, 3701 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-5509, USA. freemane@mail.med.upenn.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14706945

Citation

Freeman, Ellen W., et al. "Hormones and Menopausal Status as Predictors of Depression in Women in Transition to Menopause." Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 1, 2004, pp. 62-70.
Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Liu L, et al. Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(1):62-70.
Freeman, E. W., Sammel, M. D., Liu, L., Gracia, C. R., Nelson, D. B., & Hollander, L. (2004). Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 62-70.
Freeman EW, et al. Hormones and Menopausal Status as Predictors of Depression in Women in Transition to Menopause. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(1):62-70. PubMed PMID: 14706945.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hormones and menopausal status as predictors of depression in women in transition to menopause. AU - Freeman,Ellen W, AU - Sammel,Mary D, AU - Liu,Li, AU - Gracia,Clarisa R, AU - Nelson,Deborah B, AU - Hollander,Lori, PY - 2004/1/7/pubmed PY - 2004/2/18/medline PY - 2004/1/7/entrez SP - 62 EP - 70 JF - Archives of general psychiatry JO - Arch Gen Psychiatry VL - 61 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Associations between depressed mood and hormonal changes during transition to menopause are controversial. To our knowledge, there has been no prospective study of these associations in women commencing when they are premenopausal. OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally study the associations among reproductive hormones, menopausal status, and other predictors of depressed mood in midlife women. DESIGN: Cohort study with 6 assessment periods during a 4-year interval. Blood samples were collected 12 times during the follicular phase (days 2-6). SETTING: Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: A randomly identified, population-based, stratified sample of African American (n = 218) and white (n = 218) women aged 35 to 47 years with regular menstrual cycles, no hormonal or psychotropic medication use, and no serious physical or mental health problems at enrollment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score and history of depression via the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. RESULTS: There was an increased likelihood of depressive symptoms during transition to menopause and a decreased likelihood after menopause after adjustment for other predictors of depression, including history of depression, severe premenstrual syndrome, poor sleep, age, race, and employment status (P =.03). The likelihood of depressive symptoms decreased for individuals with a rapidly increasing follicle-stimulating hormone profile (P< or =.001) and also decreased with age compared with premenopausal women (P =.02). Participant aggregate profiles with increasing estradiol levels were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in bivariate analysis (P =.053). CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms as assessed herein increased during transition to menopause and decreased in postmenopausal women. Hormone associations provided corroborating evidence that the changing hormonal milieu contributes to dysphoric mood during transition to menopause. SN - 0003-990X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14706945/Hormones_and_menopausal_status_as_predictors_of_depression_in_women_in_transition_to_menopause_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.62 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -