Trace elements and vitamins in maintenance dialysis patients.Adv Ren Replace Ther 2003; 10(3):170-82AR
Although protein-energy malnutrition occurs commonly in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance dialysis treatment, it is not the only form of malnutrition that may exist in these individuals. They may also suffer from deficiencies of micronutrients, particularly trace elements and vitamins. More commonly occurring vitamin deficiencies in maintenance dialysis patients include those for vitamin C (ascorbate), folate, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol). Among trace elements, deficiencies may occur more commonly for iron, zinc, and possibly selenium, whereas toxicities are more common with aluminum and possibly copper. Evidence suggests that there is an abnormally high prevalence of antioxidant deficiency in maintenance dialysis patients, especially because a low intake of protein and energy may be associated with inadequate ingestion of antioxidant vitamins (ie, vitamins E and C and carotenoids). Thus, some micronutrient deficiencies in maintenance dialysis patients may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dietary requirements for vitamins and trace elements in maintenance dialysis patients are reviewed and the recommended daily intakes are discussed.