Craniofacial development in children with unilateral clefts of the lip, alveolus, and palate treated according to three different regimes. Assessment of nasolabial appearance.Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1992; 26(3):313-9.SJ
From extraoral photographs taken from the front and in profile of 61 16-year old children with unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate (UCLAP) who had been treated by three different treatment regimes, the nasolabial appearances were assessed by a panel. The photographs were masked, leaving only the mid face including the nose and lips. The following features were assessed using a five point scale: nasal form, symmetry of the nose, vermilion of the upper lip, shape of the vermilion border, total symmetry of upper lip, and nasal profile including the upper lip. The number and type of secondary operations required were recorded. Intraobserver reliability was good but interobserver agreement was poor, some observers systematically scoring more severely than others. A panel of six was therefore set up to establish an acceptable mean assessment. The treatment regime that included secondary bone grafting, and the one that included primary bone grafting and presurgical orthopaedic-T-traction, scored better on all features assessed compared with the group that underwent primary bone grafting but no T-traction. The latter group required fewer secondary revisionary procedures, however, which could explain these results.