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Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.
Diabetologia 2004; 47(2):185-94D

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS

Recently, a clear biological link between iron metabolism and diabetes has emerged from epidemiological and experimental studies. We carried out a prospective study of dietary iron intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes.

METHODS

35,698 postmenopausal women initially aged 55 to 69 years were followed for 11 years. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline.

RESULTS

Intake of heme iron showed a positive association with incident Type 2 diabetes; the relative risks were 1.0, 1.07, 1.12, 1.14, and 1.28 across quintiles of heme iron (p trend =0.02) after adjustment for non-dietary and dietary risk factors. Heme iron showed a weak positive association among non-drinkers, but the association appeared to be stronger among subjects who consumed more alcohol. For example, in a model restricted to those who drank alcohol at least 15 g/day, adjusted relative risks across quintiles of heme iron were 1.0, 2.26, 3.22, 1.92, and 4.42 (p trend =0.05); and consumers of 30 g/day of more of supplemental iron had an adjusted relative risk equal to 3.03 (95% CI, 1.29-7.12)], compared to those who took no iron supplement. Non-heme iron was inversely associated with incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Amongst non-drinkers adjusted relative risks were 1.0, 0.83, 0.87, 0.72, and 0.67 across quintiles (p trend <0.01). This inverse association was lost among drinkers, in whom there was no association of diabetes incidence with non-heme iron.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION

Greater dietary heme-iron intake and/or supplemental iron were associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, especially amongst those who drink alcohol.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55454, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14712349

Citation

Lee, D-H, et al. "Dietary Iron Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Postmenopausal Women: the Iowa Women's Health Study." Diabetologia, vol. 47, no. 2, 2004, pp. 185-94.
Lee DH, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR. Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Diabetologia. 2004;47(2):185-94.
Lee, D. H., Folsom, A. R., & Jacobs, D. R. (2004). Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Diabetologia, 47(2), pp. 185-94.
Lee DH, Folsom AR, Jacobs DR. Dietary Iron Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in Postmenopausal Women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Diabetologia. 2004;47(2):185-94. PubMed PMID: 14712349.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary iron intake and Type 2 diabetes incidence in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. AU - Lee,D-H, AU - Folsom,A R, AU - Jacobs,D R,Jr Y1 - 2004/01/08/ PY - 2003/07/07/received PY - 2003/10/21/revised PY - 2004/1/9/pubmed PY - 2005/1/15/medline PY - 2004/1/9/entrez SP - 185 EP - 94 JF - Diabetologia JO - Diabetologia VL - 47 IS - 2 N2 - AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, a clear biological link between iron metabolism and diabetes has emerged from epidemiological and experimental studies. We carried out a prospective study of dietary iron intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 35,698 postmenopausal women initially aged 55 to 69 years were followed for 11 years. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. RESULTS: Intake of heme iron showed a positive association with incident Type 2 diabetes; the relative risks were 1.0, 1.07, 1.12, 1.14, and 1.28 across quintiles of heme iron (p trend =0.02) after adjustment for non-dietary and dietary risk factors. Heme iron showed a weak positive association among non-drinkers, but the association appeared to be stronger among subjects who consumed more alcohol. For example, in a model restricted to those who drank alcohol at least 15 g/day, adjusted relative risks across quintiles of heme iron were 1.0, 2.26, 3.22, 1.92, and 4.42 (p trend =0.05); and consumers of 30 g/day of more of supplemental iron had an adjusted relative risk equal to 3.03 (95% CI, 1.29-7.12)], compared to those who took no iron supplement. Non-heme iron was inversely associated with incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Amongst non-drinkers adjusted relative risks were 1.0, 0.83, 0.87, 0.72, and 0.67 across quintiles (p trend <0.01). This inverse association was lost among drinkers, in whom there was no association of diabetes incidence with non-heme iron. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Greater dietary heme-iron intake and/or supplemental iron were associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, especially amongst those who drink alcohol. SN - 0012-186X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14712349/Dietary_iron_intake_and_Type_2_diabetes_incidence_in_postmenopausal_women:_the_Iowa_Women's_Health_Study_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-003-1307-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -