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Prevalence and risk factors of morning headaches in the general population.
Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12; 164(1):97-102.AI

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of chronic morning headaches (CMH) in the general population and their relationship to sociodemographic characteristics, psychoactive substance use, and organic, sleep, and mental disorders.

METHODS

A telephone questionnaire was submitted to 18 980 individuals 15 years or older and representative of the general populations of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. It included a series of questions about morning headaches, organic disorders, use of psychoactive substances, and sleep and mental disorders in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).

RESULTS

Overall, the prevalence of CMH was 7.6% (n = 1442); CMH were reported to occur "daily" by 1.3% of the sample, "often" by 4.4%, and "sometimes" by 1.9%. Rates were higher in women than in men (8.4% vs 6.7%) and in subjects aged between 45 and 64 years (about 9%). The median duration for CMH was 42 months. Various conditions and disorders were found positively associated with CMH. The most significant associated factors were comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (28.5% vs 5.5%), major depressive disorder alone (21.3% vs 5.5%), dyssomnia not otherwise specified (17.1% vs 6.9%), insomnia disorder (14.4% vs 6.9%), and circadian rhythm disorder (20.0% vs 7.5%). Sleep-related breathing disorder (15.2% vs 7.5%), hypertension (11.0% vs 7.2%), musculoskeletal diseases (14.1% vs 7.1%), use of anxiolytic medication (20.1% vs 7.3%), and heavy alcohol consumption (12.6% vs 7.7%) were also significantly associated with CMH.

CONCLUSIONS

Morning headache affects 1 individual in 13 in the general population. Chronic morning headaches are a good indicator of major depressive disorders and insomnia disorders. Contrary to what was previously suggested, however, they are not specific to sleep-related breathing disorder.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Stanford Sleep Epidemiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94303, USA. mohayon@stanford.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14718329

Citation

Ohayon, Maurice M.. "Prevalence and Risk Factors of Morning Headaches in the General Population." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 1, 2004, pp. 97-102.
Ohayon MM. Prevalence and risk factors of morning headaches in the general population. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(1):97-102.
Ohayon, M. M. (2004). Prevalence and risk factors of morning headaches in the general population. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(1), 97-102.
Ohayon MM. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Morning Headaches in the General Population. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):97-102. PubMed PMID: 14718329.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and risk factors of morning headaches in the general population. A1 - Ohayon,Maurice M, PY - 2004/1/14/pubmed PY - 2004/3/16/medline PY - 2004/1/14/entrez SP - 97 EP - 102 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch Intern Med VL - 164 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chronic morning headaches (CMH) in the general population and their relationship to sociodemographic characteristics, psychoactive substance use, and organic, sleep, and mental disorders. METHODS: A telephone questionnaire was submitted to 18 980 individuals 15 years or older and representative of the general populations of the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. It included a series of questions about morning headaches, organic disorders, use of psychoactive substances, and sleep and mental disorders in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of CMH was 7.6% (n = 1442); CMH were reported to occur "daily" by 1.3% of the sample, "often" by 4.4%, and "sometimes" by 1.9%. Rates were higher in women than in men (8.4% vs 6.7%) and in subjects aged between 45 and 64 years (about 9%). The median duration for CMH was 42 months. Various conditions and disorders were found positively associated with CMH. The most significant associated factors were comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (28.5% vs 5.5%), major depressive disorder alone (21.3% vs 5.5%), dyssomnia not otherwise specified (17.1% vs 6.9%), insomnia disorder (14.4% vs 6.9%), and circadian rhythm disorder (20.0% vs 7.5%). Sleep-related breathing disorder (15.2% vs 7.5%), hypertension (11.0% vs 7.2%), musculoskeletal diseases (14.1% vs 7.1%), use of anxiolytic medication (20.1% vs 7.3%), and heavy alcohol consumption (12.6% vs 7.7%) were also significantly associated with CMH. CONCLUSIONS: Morning headache affects 1 individual in 13 in the general population. Chronic morning headaches are a good indicator of major depressive disorders and insomnia disorders. Contrary to what was previously suggested, however, they are not specific to sleep-related breathing disorder. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14718329/Prevalence_and_risk_factors_of_morning_headaches_in_the_general_population_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.164.1.97 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -