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Strongyloides stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Jan; 17(1):208-17.CM

Abstract

Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode of humans that infects tens of millions of people worldwide. S. stercoralis is unique among intestinal nematodes in its ability to complete its life cycle within the host through an asexual autoinfective cycle, allowing the infection to persist in the host indefinitely. Under some conditions associated with immunocompromise, this autoinfective cycle can become amplified into a potentially fatal hyperinfection syndrome, characterized by increased numbers of infective filariform larvae in stool and sputum and clinical manifestations of the increased parasite burden and migration, such as gastrointestinal bleeding and respiratory distress. S. stercoralis hyperinfection is often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis with enteric organisms. Glucocorticoid treatment and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection are the two conditions most specifically associated with triggering hyperinfection, but cases have been reported in association with hematologic malignancy, malnutrition, and AIDS. Anthelmintic agents such as ivermectin have been used successfully in treating the hyperinfection syndrome as well as for primary and secondary prevention of hyperinfection in patients whose exposure history and underlying condition put them at increased risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Helminth Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14726461

Citation

Keiser, Paul B., and Thomas B. Nutman. "Strongyloides Stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population." Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 17, no. 1, 2004, pp. 208-17.
Keiser PB, Nutman TB. Strongyloides stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17(1):208-17.
Keiser, P. B., & Nutman, T. B. (2004). Strongyloides stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 17(1), 208-17.
Keiser PB, Nutman TB. Strongyloides Stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17(1):208-17. PubMed PMID: 14726461.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Strongyloides stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population. AU - Keiser,Paul B, AU - Nutman,Thomas B, PY - 2004/1/17/pubmed PY - 2004/3/30/medline PY - 2004/1/17/entrez SP - 208 EP - 17 JF - Clinical microbiology reviews JO - Clin. Microbiol. Rev. VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode of humans that infects tens of millions of people worldwide. S. stercoralis is unique among intestinal nematodes in its ability to complete its life cycle within the host through an asexual autoinfective cycle, allowing the infection to persist in the host indefinitely. Under some conditions associated with immunocompromise, this autoinfective cycle can become amplified into a potentially fatal hyperinfection syndrome, characterized by increased numbers of infective filariform larvae in stool and sputum and clinical manifestations of the increased parasite burden and migration, such as gastrointestinal bleeding and respiratory distress. S. stercoralis hyperinfection is often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis with enteric organisms. Glucocorticoid treatment and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection are the two conditions most specifically associated with triggering hyperinfection, but cases have been reported in association with hematologic malignancy, malnutrition, and AIDS. Anthelmintic agents such as ivermectin have been used successfully in treating the hyperinfection syndrome as well as for primary and secondary prevention of hyperinfection in patients whose exposure history and underlying condition put them at increased risk. SN - 0893-8512 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14726461/full_citation L2 - http://cmr.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14726461 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -