Infection-induced up-regulation of the costimulatory molecule 4-1BB in osteoblastic cells and its inhibitory effect on M-CSF/RANKL-induced in vitro osteoclastogenesis.J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 02; 279(14):13555-63.JB
Bacterial infection sometimes impairs bone metabolism. In this study, we infected the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and identified genes that were up-regulated in the BCG-infected cells by the suppression subtractive hybridization method. A gene encoding 4-1BB (CD137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor family, was found to be one of the up-regulated genes. Up-regulation of 4-1BB was also observed by infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus, and by treatment with lipopolysaccharides and heat-killed BCG. Bone marrow cells and the macrophage-like cell lines J774 and RAW264.7 were found to express 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL). Recombinant 4-1BB (r4-1BB) that was immobilized on culture plates strongly inhibited macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced in vitro osteoclast formation from bone marrow cells. Anti-4-1BBL antibody also inhibited osteoclast formation to a lesser extent, indicating involvement of reverse signaling through 4-1BBL during inhibition of osteoclast formation. A casein kinase I (CKI) inhibitor markedly suppressed the inhibitory effect of r4-1BB on M-CSF/RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, suggesting that CKI might be involved in 4-1BB/4-1BBL reverse signaling. r4-1BB showed no effects on M-CSF- or RANKL-induced phosphorylation of I-kappaB, ERK1/2, p38, or JNK, whereas RANKL-induced phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), was completely abolished by r4-1BB, suggesting that 4-1BB/4-1BBL reverse signaling may interfere with PI3K/Akt pathway. r4-1BB also abolished RANKL-mediated induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells-2. This study may elucidate a novel role of 4-1BB in cell metabolism, especially osteoclastogenesis.