[Daily nutrient intake in hemodialysis].G Ital Nefrol. 2003 Nov-Dec; 20(6):592-601.GI
Although there is a higher nutrient requirement, food intake in haemodialysis patients is often inadequate. Protein nitrogen appearance (PNA) indirectly estimates the mean protein intake during the short interdialysis period, but it does not measure the daily nutrient intake, which is generally unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study aimed at estimating the daily nutrient intake and its relationship with the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients.
We selected 28 haemodialysis patients with adequate nutritional status and no evidence of risk-factor for malnutrition. Patients were treated with biocompatible membranes, low-flux and high bicarbonate dialysis, Kt/V > 1.2, PNA > 1.1 g/kg/day and erythropoietin. We measured every four months daily PNA, protein and calorie intake (DPI, DCI) as well as weight gain (WG) during an entire week for one-year. The nutritional status was assessed by biochemical and BIA markers.
Twenty seven subjects (8 F, 19 M; age 57.1 +- 2.7 yeas; dialysis age 105 +- 13 months) completed the trial. The mean interdialytic PNA did not change in both long- and short-interdialysis periods, resulting in the "normal" range (> 1.1 g/kg/day); however, daily levels of protein and calorie intake were significantly reduced on the third day during the long interdialysis interval. Eight patients showed time-averaged values of DPI and DCI lower than 0.8 g/kg/day and 25 Kcal/kg/day, respectively, on the third day (LOW group), values that were associated with similar changes in WG. Such a highly reduced nutrient intake during the third interdialysis day was associated with a normal PNA value (1.23 +- 0.05 g/kg/day vs 1.30 +- 0.06 in CON, NS) when measured during the short interdialysis period (S), just as it is in clinical practice; in contrast, when the PNA value was measured during the long interdialysis period it was found to be significantly reduced (1.07 +- 0.08 g/kg/day vs 1.37 +- 0.06 in CON, p < 0.05 and vs S, p < 0.05). During the study, the body weight progressively decreased from 68.0 +- 5.5 to 65.8 +- 5.9 kg (p < 0.05) in the LOW group, due to the decrease in lean body mass, as suggested by the reduction in serum creatinine (9.2 +- 1.1 vs 8.1 +- 0.7 mg/dL, p < 0.05), creatinine generation (835 +- 155 vs 723 +- 106 mg/die, p < 0.05) and serum albumin (3.96 +- 0.07 vs 3.66 +- 0.06 g/dL, p < 0.05). Moreover, reactance and phase angle declined in the LOW group (from 54 +- 4 to 44 +- 3 ohms, p < 0.05 and 5.5 +- 0.3 to 4.5 +- 0.3 degrees, p < 0.05, respectively). At the end of the study the nutritional status in the LOW group was reduced as compared to the CON group.
In stable, well-nourished haemodialysis patients, in absence of known risk factors for malnutrition, the daily nutrient intake is variable and progressively reduce during the interdialytic interval. The measurement of interdialytic PNA, as is done in clinical practice, does not enable the discovery of such abnormal eating behaviour; the low daily nutrient intake, on the contrary, can be evidenced by the daily measurement of either PNA or weight gain, and it can also be inferred by the reduced PNA during the long interdialytic period. Finally, the persistent reduction in nutrient intake below the threshold of 0.8 g/kg/day of proteins and 25 Kcal/kg/day one day a week, is capable of inducing body protein wasting and moderate impairment of the nutritional status.