Fruit maturity and juice extraction influences ellagic acid derivatives and other antioxidant polyphenolics in muscadine grapes.J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jan 28; 52(2):361-6.JA
Polyphenolic compounds including ellagic acid, ellagic acid derivatives, and anthocyanins were characterized and quantified by novel chromatographic conditions in eight muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) cultivars and evaluated for antioxidant capacity as influenced by two ripening stages and their location within the fruit (skin, pulp, and juice). All polyphenolics generally increased as fruit ripened and the highest concentrations were located in the skins. Free ellagic acid, ellagic acid glycosides, and total ellagic acid ranged from 8 to 162, 7 to 115, and 587 to 1900 mg/kg, respectively, in the skin of ripe grapes. Hot-pressed juices contained considerably lower polyphenolic concentrations than were present in whole grapes. Five anthocyanidins were present in each cultivar in variable concentrations (delphinidin > petunidin > malvidin + peonidin > cyanidin). Antioxidant capacity was appreciably influenced by cultivar, maturity, and location in the fruit with good correlations to soluble phenolics found in both methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts (r = 0.83 and 0.92, respectively).