Exclusion of an extracolonic disease modifier locus on chromosome 1p33-36 in a large Swiss familial adenomatous polyposis kindred.Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 12(5):365-71.EJ
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominantly inherited colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome, displays considerable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity, which represents a major problem in genetic counselling of APC mutation carriers. The Min mouse model indicated a putative disease modifier locus on chromosome 4, which is syntenic to human chromosome 1p35-36. This finding was subsequently supported by parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses in FAP families, however, without identifying functional variants in candidate genes. Recently, germline mutations in the base-excision repair gene MYH (1p33-34) have been described in patients with multiple adenomas, pointing to a possible role as disease modifier in FAP. Here, we present critical reassessment of one of the largest FAP kindreds published, which was previously used in linkage mapping of 1p35-36. In this family, all affected members harbour the same APC germline mutation (5945delA), but display marked phenotypic variability, in particular regarding the occurrence of extracolonic disease that segregates in several branches of the family tree. Using updated clinical information, additional mutation carriers and polymorphic markers, fine mapping of the critical region as well as mutation analysis of the MYH gene were performed. These investigations allowed us to significantly exclude (i) the 1p33-36 region as a modifier locus and (ii) MYH as a modifier gene for extracolonic disease in this FAP kindred. Our results do not eliminate 1p33-36 from suspicion in other families, but clearly indicate that in our family linkage analysis of further putative candidate regions is necessary to identify a disease modifier locus in FAP.