Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Int J Cancer 2004; 109(1):119-24IJ
We examined the association between self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 130544 men in 7 countries recruited into EPIC between 1993 and 1999. After an average of 4.8 years of follow-up, there were 1104 incident cases of prostate cancer. The associations of consumption of total fruits, total vegetables, cruciferous vegetables and combined total fruits and vegetables with prostate cancer risk were examined using Cox regression, stratified for recruitment center and adjusted for height, weight and energy intake. There was a wide range in consumption of fruits and vegetables: mean intakes (g/day) in the bottom and top fifths of the distribution, as estimated from 24-hr recalls in a subsample of participants, were 53.2 and 410.7 for fruits, 97.1 and 242.1 for vegetables and 169.0 and 633.7 for fruits and vegetables combined. No significant associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and prostate cancer risk were observed. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals) in the top fifth of the distribution of consumption, compared to the bottom fifth, were 1.06 (0.84-1.34) for total fruits, 1.00 (0.81-1.22) for total vegetables and 1.00 (0.79-1.26) for total fruits and vegetables combined; intake of cruciferous vegetables was not associated with risk. These results suggest that total consumption of fruits and vegetables is not associated with the risk for prostate cancer.