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Melatonin as an antioxidant: biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological implications in humans.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2003; 50(4):1129-46.AB

Abstract

This brief resume enumerates the multiple actions of melatonin as an antioxidant. This indoleamine is produced in the vertebrate pineal gland, the retina and possibly some other organs. Additionally, however, it is found in invertebrates, bacteria, unicellular organisms as well as in plants, all of which do not have a pineal gland. Melatonin's functions as an antioxidant include: a), direct free radical scavenging, b), stimulation of antioxidative enzymes, c), increasing the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and reducing electron leakage (thereby lowering free radical generation), and 3), augmenting the efficiency of other antioxidants. There may be other functions of melatonin, yet undiscovered, which enhance its ability to protect against molecular damage by oxygen and nitrogen-based toxic reactants. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have documented the ability of both physiological and pharmacological concentrations to melatonin to protect against free radical destruction. Furthermore, clinical tests utilizing melatonin have proven highly successful; because of the positive outcomes of these studies, melatonin's use in disease states and processes where free radical damage is involved should be increased.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. Reiter@UTHSCSA.EDUNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14740000

Citation

Reiter, Russel J., et al. "Melatonin as an Antioxidant: Biochemical Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications in Humans." Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 50, no. 4, 2003, pp. 1129-46.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Mayo JC, et al. Melatonin as an antioxidant: biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological implications in humans. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50(4):1129-46.
Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., Leon, J., & Czarnocki, Z. (2003). Melatonin as an antioxidant: biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological implications in humans. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 50(4), 1129-46.
Reiter RJ, et al. Melatonin as an Antioxidant: Biochemical Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications in Humans. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50(4):1129-46. PubMed PMID: 14740000.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Melatonin as an antioxidant: biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological implications in humans. AU - Reiter,Russel J, AU - Tan,Dun-Xian, AU - Mayo,Juan C, AU - Sainz,Rosa M, AU - Leon,Josefa, AU - Czarnocki,Zbigniew, PY - 2003/09/17/received PY - 2003/10/17/revised PY - 2003/10/21/accepted PY - 2004/1/24/pubmed PY - 2004/10/28/medline PY - 2004/1/24/entrez SP - 1129 EP - 46 JF - Acta biochimica Polonica JO - Acta Biochim Pol VL - 50 IS - 4 N2 - This brief resume enumerates the multiple actions of melatonin as an antioxidant. This indoleamine is produced in the vertebrate pineal gland, the retina and possibly some other organs. Additionally, however, it is found in invertebrates, bacteria, unicellular organisms as well as in plants, all of which do not have a pineal gland. Melatonin's functions as an antioxidant include: a), direct free radical scavenging, b), stimulation of antioxidative enzymes, c), increasing the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and reducing electron leakage (thereby lowering free radical generation), and 3), augmenting the efficiency of other antioxidants. There may be other functions of melatonin, yet undiscovered, which enhance its ability to protect against molecular damage by oxygen and nitrogen-based toxic reactants. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have documented the ability of both physiological and pharmacological concentrations to melatonin to protect against free radical destruction. Furthermore, clinical tests utilizing melatonin have proven highly successful; because of the positive outcomes of these studies, melatonin's use in disease states and processes where free radical damage is involved should be increased. SN - 0001-527X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14740000/Melatonin_as_an_antioxidant:_biochemical_mechanisms_and_pathophysiological_implications_in_humans_ L2 - http://www.actabp.pl/pdf/4_2003/1129.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -