Inhibition of early airway neutrophilia does not affect development of airway hyperresponsiveness.Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2004; 30(6):837-43AJ
The effect of modifying early neutrophil-mediated inflammation on the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was investigated using an interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), an anti-IL-18 antibody (anti-IL-18) or a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor (M39). Balb/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and challenged with a single intranasal dose of OVA. Treatment with the IL-1Ra or anti-IL-18 was initiated 20 min before challenge, whereas M39 was administered 4 h before the challenge. Eight hours after challenge, sensitized mice showed significantly higher numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid; treatment with IL-1Ra, anti-IL-18, or M39 significantly decreased the influx of neutrophils. At 48 h, none of the treatments affected eosinophil inflammation in BAL fluid and lung tissue, goblet cell hyperplasia, or cytokine levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, interferon-gamma) in BAL fluid. Anti-IL-18 or IL-1Ra had no effect on the development of AHR, whereas M39-treated mice showed a decrease in methacholine responsiveness. These results demonstrate that early neutrophil influx following allergen challenge is mediated by IL-1, IL-18, and p38 MAPK. However, neutralization of IL-1 and IL-18 did not affect the later development of AHR and eosinophilic airway inflammation. The effects of inhibiting p38 MAPK in decreasing AHR indicate activities independent of its prevention of neutrophil accumulation.