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Homogeneous biocatalysis in organic solvents and water-organic mixtures.
Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2003; 23(3):195-231.CR

Abstract

Biocatalysis in non-aqueous media has undergone tremendous development during the last decade, and numerous reactions have been introduced and optimized for synthetic applications. In contrast to aqueous enzymology, biotransformations in organic solvents offer unique industrially attractive advantages, such as: drastic changes in the enantioselectivity of the reaction, the reversal of the thermodynamic equilibrium of hydrolysis reactions, suppression of water-dependent side reactions, and resistance to bacterial contamination. Currently, the field is dominated by heterogeneous biocatalysis based primarily on lyophilized enzyme powders, cross-linked crystals, and enzymes immobilized on inert supports that are mainly applied in enantioselective synthesis. However, low reaction rates are an inherent problem of the heterogeneous biocatalysis, while the homogeneous systems have the advantage that the elimination of diffusional barriers of substrates and products between organic and water phases results in an increase in the reaction rate. Here the discussion is focused on the correlation between activity and structure of the intact enzymes dissolved in neat organic solvents, as well as modifications of natural enzymes, which make them soluble and catalytically active in non-aqueous environment. Factors that influence conformation and stability of the enzymes are also discussed. Current developments in non-aqueous biocatalysts that combine advantages of protein modification and immobilization, i.e., HIP plastics, enzyme chips, ionic liquids, are introduced. Finally, engineering enzymes for biotransformations in non-conventional media by directed evolution is summarized.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14743990

Citation

Castro, G R., and Tatyana Knubovets. "Homogeneous Biocatalysis in Organic Solvents and Water-organic Mixtures." Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 3, 2003, pp. 195-231.
Castro GR, Knubovets T. Homogeneous biocatalysis in organic solvents and water-organic mixtures. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2003;23(3):195-231.
Castro, G. R., & Knubovets, T. (2003). Homogeneous biocatalysis in organic solvents and water-organic mixtures. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 23(3), 195-231.
Castro GR, Knubovets T. Homogeneous Biocatalysis in Organic Solvents and Water-organic Mixtures. Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2003;23(3):195-231. PubMed PMID: 14743990.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Homogeneous biocatalysis in organic solvents and water-organic mixtures. AU - Castro,G R, AU - Knubovets,Tatyana, PY - 2004/1/28/pubmed PY - 2004/8/11/medline PY - 2004/1/28/entrez SP - 195 EP - 231 JF - Critical reviews in biotechnology JO - Crit Rev Biotechnol VL - 23 IS - 3 N2 - Biocatalysis in non-aqueous media has undergone tremendous development during the last decade, and numerous reactions have been introduced and optimized for synthetic applications. In contrast to aqueous enzymology, biotransformations in organic solvents offer unique industrially attractive advantages, such as: drastic changes in the enantioselectivity of the reaction, the reversal of the thermodynamic equilibrium of hydrolysis reactions, suppression of water-dependent side reactions, and resistance to bacterial contamination. Currently, the field is dominated by heterogeneous biocatalysis based primarily on lyophilized enzyme powders, cross-linked crystals, and enzymes immobilized on inert supports that are mainly applied in enantioselective synthesis. However, low reaction rates are an inherent problem of the heterogeneous biocatalysis, while the homogeneous systems have the advantage that the elimination of diffusional barriers of substrates and products between organic and water phases results in an increase in the reaction rate. Here the discussion is focused on the correlation between activity and structure of the intact enzymes dissolved in neat organic solvents, as well as modifications of natural enzymes, which make them soluble and catalytically active in non-aqueous environment. Factors that influence conformation and stability of the enzymes are also discussed. Current developments in non-aqueous biocatalysts that combine advantages of protein modification and immobilization, i.e., HIP plastics, enzyme chips, ionic liquids, are introduced. Finally, engineering enzymes for biotransformations in non-conventional media by directed evolution is summarized. SN - 0738-8551 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14743990/Homogeneous_biocatalysis_in_organic_solvents_and_water_organic_mixtures_ L2 - https://www.lens.org/lens/search/patent/list?q=citation_id:14743990 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -