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Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews.

Abstract

Cigarette smoking is an important and well-established cause of pancreatic cancer. In contrast, little is known about the effects of smoking cigars, pipes, and use of smokeless tobacco on pancreatic cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between noncigarette tobacco use (i.e., cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco) and pancreatic cancer risk among nonsmokers of cigarettes. A population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer was conducted during 1986-1989 among residents of Atlanta, Georgia, Detroit, Michigan, and 10 counties in New Jersey. Direct interviews were successfully completed with 526 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 2153 controls ages 30-79 years. This analysis was restricted to lifelong nonsmokers of cigarettes and based on interviews with 154 cases newly diagnosed with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 844 population controls who reported no history of cigarette smoking. We observed a consistent pattern of increased risk associated with cigar smoking, although these elevations were not statistically significant. Participants who smoked cigars regularly (i.e., at least one cigar/week for >/=6 months) experienced a 70% increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-3.3], and those who never used other form of tobacco had a 90% increased risk (95% CI: 0.8-4.3). Risk was elevated among those who smoked more than one cigar/day [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.2) and among those who smoked cigars > 20 years (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-3.9). Trends in risk with increasing amount and duration smoked were consistent but not statistically significant (P = 0.17 and P = 0.16, respectively). Subjects who used smokeless tobacco regularly had a 40% increased risk of pancreatic cancer (95% CI: 0.5-3.6) compared with nonusers of tobacco. We observed a marginally significant increasing risk with increased use of smokeless tobacco (P = 0.04); participants who used >2.5 oz of smokeless tobacco a week had an OR of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.1-11). Long-term use of smokeless tobacco (i.e., >20 years) was also associated with a nonsignificant increased risk (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.6-4.0). In contrast, pipe smokers experienced no increased risk (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.1-2.8). Our results suggest that heavy use of smokeless tobacco, and to a lesser extent, cigar smoking may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer among nonsmokers of cigarettes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14744733

Citation

Alguacil, Juan, and Debra T. Silverman. "Smokeless and Other Noncigarette Tobacco Use and Pancreatic Cancer: a Case-control Study Based On Direct Interviews." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, 2004, pp. 55-8.
Alguacil J, Silverman DT. Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):55-8.
Alguacil, J., & Silverman, D. T. (2004). Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 13(1), pp. 55-8.
Alguacil J, Silverman DT. Smokeless and Other Noncigarette Tobacco Use and Pancreatic Cancer: a Case-control Study Based On Direct Interviews. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(1):55-8. PubMed PMID: 14744733.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. AU - Alguacil,Juan, AU - Silverman,Debra T, PY - 2004/1/28/pubmed PY - 2004/4/21/medline PY - 2004/1/28/entrez SP - 55 EP - 8 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - Cigarette smoking is an important and well-established cause of pancreatic cancer. In contrast, little is known about the effects of smoking cigars, pipes, and use of smokeless tobacco on pancreatic cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between noncigarette tobacco use (i.e., cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco) and pancreatic cancer risk among nonsmokers of cigarettes. A population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer was conducted during 1986-1989 among residents of Atlanta, Georgia, Detroit, Michigan, and 10 counties in New Jersey. Direct interviews were successfully completed with 526 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 2153 controls ages 30-79 years. This analysis was restricted to lifelong nonsmokers of cigarettes and based on interviews with 154 cases newly diagnosed with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 844 population controls who reported no history of cigarette smoking. We observed a consistent pattern of increased risk associated with cigar smoking, although these elevations were not statistically significant. Participants who smoked cigars regularly (i.e., at least one cigar/week for >/=6 months) experienced a 70% increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-3.3], and those who never used other form of tobacco had a 90% increased risk (95% CI: 0.8-4.3). Risk was elevated among those who smoked more than one cigar/day [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.2) and among those who smoked cigars > 20 years (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-3.9). Trends in risk with increasing amount and duration smoked were consistent but not statistically significant (P = 0.17 and P = 0.16, respectively). Subjects who used smokeless tobacco regularly had a 40% increased risk of pancreatic cancer (95% CI: 0.5-3.6) compared with nonusers of tobacco. We observed a marginally significant increasing risk with increased use of smokeless tobacco (P = 0.04); participants who used >2.5 oz of smokeless tobacco a week had an OR of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.1-11). Long-term use of smokeless tobacco (i.e., >20 years) was also associated with a nonsignificant increased risk (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.6-4.0). In contrast, pipe smokers experienced no increased risk (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.1-2.8). Our results suggest that heavy use of smokeless tobacco, and to a lesser extent, cigar smoking may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer among nonsmokers of cigarettes. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14744733/Smokeless_and_other_noncigarette_tobacco_use_and_pancreatic_cancer:_a_case_control_study_based_on_direct_interviews_ L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14744733 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -