Contrasting and cooperative effects of copper and iron deficiencies in male rats fed different concentrations of manganese and different sources of sulfur amino acids in an AIN-93G-based diet.J Nutr 2004; 134(2):416-25JN
Dietary nutrient interactions are important factors to consider in the study of nutrient status and requirements. Here, the effects of dietary interactions among copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and sulfur amino acids (SAA) on blood cell characteristics and enzyme activities were observed. Male rats (n = 8) were used in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design and fed an AIN-93G-based diet containing dietary Cu (<1 and 5 mg/kg), Fe (10 and 35 mg/kg), Mn (10 and 50 mg/kg) and either L-cystine (LCys) or DL-methionine (DLMet). Blood was analyzed by automated hematology cell counting and by flow cytometry. Severe Cu deficiency was verified by reductions in the activities of serum ceruloplasmin (1% of control), RBC superoxide dismutase (SOD1) (14% of control), liver cytochrome c oxidase activity (25% of control) and serum extracellular SOD (SOD3) activity (20% of controls). Because Cu is required for Fe utilization, many physiologic responses that require Fe were affected by both deficiencies, including lowered blood hemoglobin (Hgb), lower RBC volume and Hgb concentration, and an increased number of reticulocytes. Cu and Fe deficiencies together worsened some conditions, i.e., lower Hgb, lower RBC Hgb, increased RBC distribution width, increased number of reticulocytes and nucleated RBC, and a higher platelet count. Increasing dietary Mn had little effect on most variables, except to reduce serum Cu when dietary Cu was adequate but not when it was low, and to reduce RBC SOD1 activity when dietary Fe was low but not when it was adequate. Hgb concentrations were higher (P < 0.002) in Cu-deficient rats fed LCys than in those fed DLMet. There was no effect in Cu-adequate rats. Hgb was higher (P < 0.004) in Fe-adequate rats fed LCys than in those fed DLMet, with no effect in Fe-deficient rats. Although the anemia of Cu deficiency in AIN-93G-fed rats was not as pronounced as that reported in rats fed the AIN-76A-based diet, other manifestations of the deficiency were prominent.