Actions of the anti-oestrogen agent clomiphene on outward K+ currents in rat ventricular myocytes.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Jan-Feb; 31(1-2):86-95.CE
1. The effects of clomiphene (CLM) on cardiac outward K+ current components from rat isolated ventricular myocytes were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Clomiphene (10 micromol/L) significantly inhibited both peak (Ipeak) and end-pulse (Ilate) outward currents (elicited by a 500 msec voltage step from -40 to +50 mV in the presence of K+-containing intracellular and extracellular solutions) by approximately 37% (n = 6; P < 0.01) and 49% (n = 6; P < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, CLM had no effect on outward currents when K+-free solutions were used. 2. A double-pulse protocol and Boltzmann fitting were used to separate individual K+ current components on the basis of their voltage-dependent inactivation properties. At potentials positive to -80 mV, two inactivating transient outward components (Ito) and (IKx) and a non-inactivating steady state component (Iss) could be distinguished. 3. Clomiphene inhibited both Ito and Iss. The maximal block of Ito and Iss induced by CLM (100 micromol/L) was approximately 61% (n = 5) and 43% (n = 5) with IC50 values of 1.54 +/- 0.39 and 2.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively. In contrast, the peak magnitude of IKx was unaltered by CLM, although its time-course of inactivation was accelerated. 4. Further experiments whereby myocytes were superfused with the vasoactive peptide endothelin (ET)-1 (20 nmol/L) revealed that CLM (10 micro mol/L) completely abolished the ET-1-sensitive component of Iss. 5. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the effects of CLM on distinct cardiac K+ current components and show that CLM modulates the voltage-gated K+ current components Ito and IKx and inhibits the steady state outward current Iss in rat ventricular myocytes.