Studies on lethal concentrations and toxicity stress of some xenobiotics on aquatic organisms.Chemosphere. 2004 Apr; 55(2):257-65.C
Three widely used xenobiotics pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (Butachlor) are evaluated for acute toxicity and stress behavior on freshwater fish (Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, Channa punctatus) and mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens fatigans). The experiment was carried out by medium treatment using intermittent flow-through system. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were calculated by probit analysis. The LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals showed variable range for tested chemicals. Mosquito larvae generally appeared resistant than fish, while H. fossilis was found to be most sensitive. Stress signs in the form of behavioral changes are also observed. Both types of organisms are recommended as good bioindicator for the risk assessment of aquatic environment due to chemicals tested.