Production and metabolic responses of periparturient Holstein cows to dietary conjugated linoleic acid and trans-octadecenoic acids.J Dairy Sci. 2004 Jan; 87(1):158-68.JD
Thirty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in a completely randomized design to examine the effect of feeding calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-octadecenoic acids (trans-C18:1) on animal performance and lipid and glucose metabolism during the transition to lactation. Dietary treatments were initiated approximately 28 d prior to expected calving dates and continued through d 49 postpartum. Prepartum treatments consisted of 1) a basal diet (Control), 2) basal diet + 150 g/d of CLA mix (CLA), and 3) basal diet + 150 g/d of trans-C18:1 mix (TRANS). Amounts of calcium salts of CLA and trans-C18:1 mixes were adjusted to 225 g/d during the 49-d postpartum treatment period. All diets were offered as a total mixed ration. Prepartum fat supplementation had no detectable effects on dry matter intake, body weight, or body condition score. After parturition, cows in the TRANS group consumed less dry matter at wk 4, 5, and 6 of lactation than did cows in the control group. Cows fed the trans-C18:1 supplement were in a more severe negative energy balance than those fed the control diet at 1 wk of lactation. Periparturient fat supplementation had no detectable effects on milk yield during wk 1 to 7 of lactation. Milk fat was not affected during wk 1 to 4, but was reduced after wk 4 of lactation by dietary CLA. Feeding calcium salts of CLA decreased short- to medium-chain fatty acid (C4 to C14) concentrations and increased both linoleic and linolenic acid concentrations in milk fat. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid in blood were greater in cows fed the CLA-supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet at 1 wk of lactation. In spite of small numerical tendencies, hepatic lipid and triacylglycerol concentrations did not vary significantly among dietary treatments. Periparturient fat supplementation had no detectable effects on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Steady-state concentrations of hepatic mRNA encoding pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were greater for the TRANS treatment group than the control and CLA groups. Results indicate that dietary CLA and trans-C18:1 fatty acids may affect lipid and glucose metabolism in early postpartum Holstein cows through distinct mechanisms.