An enzymatic assay for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) via the chemical quantitation of NAD(+): application to the high-throughput screening of small molecules as potential inhibitors.Anal Biochem. 2004 Mar 01; 326(1):78-86.AB
The enzyme poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) catalyzes the formation of (ADP)-ribose polymers on a variety of protein acceptors in a NAD+ -dependent manner. While PARP-1 is activated by DNA damage and plays a critical role in cellular survival mechanisms, its overactivation leads to a depletion of NAD+/ATP energy stores and ultimately to necrotic cell death. Due to this dual role of PARP in the cell, small-molecule inhibitors of the PARP family of enzymes have been widely investigated for use as potentiators of anticancer therapies and as inhibitors of neurodegeneration and ischemic injuries. Unfortunately, standard assays for PARP inhibition are not optimal for the high-throughput screening of compound collections or combinatorial libraries. Described herein is a highly sensitive, inexpensive, and operationally simple assay for the rapid assessment of PARP activity that relies on the conversion of NAD+ into a highly fluorescent compound. We demonstrate that this assay can readily detect PARP inhibitors in a high-throughput screen using 384-well plates. In addition, the assay can be used to determine IC50 values for PARP inhibitors that have a range of inhibitory properties. As existing PARP assays utilize specialized reagents such as radiolabeled/biotinylated NAD+ or antibodies to poly(ADP-ribose), the chemical quantitation method described herein offers a highly sensitive and convenient alternative for rapidly screening compound collections for PARP inhibition.