Cloning and transgenesis in mammals: implications for xenotransplantation.Am J Transplant. 2004; 4 Suppl 6:43-50.AJ
Availability of suitable organs for transplantation remains of major concern and projections indicate that the problem will continue to increase. Therefore, alternatives to the use of human organs for transplantation, continue to be explored including use of stem cells, artificial organs, and organs from other species (xenotransplantation). In xenotransplantation, the species of choice remains the pig due to its physiological similarities to humans, reduced costs, ease of manipulation, and reduced ethical concerns to its use. However, in order to develop pig organs that are suitable for xenotransplantation, complex genetic modification need to be undertaken. These modifications require the introduction of precise genetic changes into the pig that can only be accomplished at this time using somatic cell nuclear transfer. We cover in this review advances in transgenic manipulation and cloning in swine and how the development of these two technologies is critical to the eventual utilization of the pig as a human organ donor.