An intronic polypyrimidine-rich element downstream of the donor site modulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator exon 9 alternative splicing.J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):16980-8.JB
Two intronic elements, a polymorphic TGmTn locus at the end of intron 8 and an intronic splicing silencer in intron 9, regulate aberrant splicing of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exon 9. Previous studies (Pagani, F., Buratti, E., Stuani, C., Romano, M., Zuccato, E., Niksic, M., Giglio, L., Faraguna, D., and Baralle, F. E. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 21041-21047 and Buratti, E., Dork, T., Zuccato, E., Pagani, F., Romano, M., and Baralle, F. E. (2001) Embo J. 20, 1774-1784) have demonstrated that trans-acting factors that bind to these sequences, TDP43 and Ser/Arg-rich proteins, respectively, mediate splicing inhibition. Here, we report the identification of two polypyrimidine-binding proteins, TIA-1 and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), as novel players in the regulation of CFTR exon 9 splicing. In hybrid minigene experiments, TIA-1 induced exon inclusion, whereas PTB induced exon skipping. TIA-1 bound specifically to a polypyrimidine-rich controlling element (PCE) located between the weak 5'-splice site (ss) and the intronic splicing silencer. Mutants of the PCE polypyrimidine motifs did not bind TIA-1 and, in a splicing assay, did not respond to TIA-1 splicing enhancement. PTB antagonized in vitro TIA-1 binding to the PCE, but its splicing inhibition was independent of its binding to the PCE. Recruitment of U1 small nuclear RNA to the weak 5'-ss by complementarity also induced exon 9 inclusion, consistent with the facilitating role of TIA-1 in weak 5'-ss recognition by U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Interestingly, in the presence of a high number of TG repeats and a low number of T repeats in the TGmTn locus, TIA-1 activated a cryptic exonic 3'-ss. This effect was independent of both TIA-1 binding to the PCE and U1 small nuclear RNA recruitment to the 5'-ss. Moreover, it was abolished by deletion of either the TG or T sequence. These data indicate that, in CFTR exon 9, TIA-1 binding to the PCE recruits U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein to the weak 5'-ss and induces exon inclusion. The TIA-1-mediated alternative usage of the 3'-splice sites, which depends on the composition of the unusual TGmTn element, represents a new mechanism of splicing regulation by TIA-1.