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Fluid and fuel intake during exercise.
J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan; 22(1):39-55.JS

Abstract

The amounts of water, carbohydrate and salt that athletes are advised to ingest during exercise are based upon their effectiveness in attenuating both fatigue as well as illness due to hyperthermia, dehydration or hyperhydration. When possible, fluid should be ingested at rates that most closely match sweating rate. When that is not possible or practical or sufficiently ergogenic, some athletes might tolerate body water losses amounting to 2% of body weight without significant risk to physical well-being or performance when the environment is cold (e.g. 5-10 degrees C) or temperate (e.g. 21-22 degrees C). However, when exercising in a hot environment (> 30 degrees C), dehydration by 2% of body weight impairs absolute power production and predisposes individuals to heat injury. Fluid should not be ingested at rates in excess of sweating rate and thus body water and weight should not increase during exercise. Fatigue can be reduced by adding carbohydrate to the fluids consumed so that 30-60 g of rapidly absorbed carbohydrate are ingested throughout each hour of an athletic event. Furthermore, sodium should be included in fluids consumed during exercise lasting longer than 2 h or by individuals during any event that stimulates heavy sodium loss (more than 3-4 g of sodium). Athletes do not benefit by ingesting glycerol, amino acids or alleged precursors of neurotransmitter. Ingestion of other substances during exercise, with the possible exception of caffeine, is discouraged. Athletes will benefit the most by tailoring their individual needs for water, carbohydrate and salt to the specific challenges of their sport, especially considering the environment's impact on sweating and heat stress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. coyle@mail.utexas.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14971432

Citation

Coyle, Edward F.. "Fluid and Fuel Intake During Exercise." Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 22, no. 1, 2004, pp. 39-55.
Coyle EF. Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(1):39-55.
Coyle, E. F. (2004). Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(1), 39-55.
Coyle EF. Fluid and Fuel Intake During Exercise. J Sports Sci. 2004;22(1):39-55. PubMed PMID: 14971432.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fluid and fuel intake during exercise. A1 - Coyle,Edward F, PY - 2004/2/20/pubmed PY - 2004/5/27/medline PY - 2004/2/20/entrez SP - 39 EP - 55 JF - Journal of sports sciences JO - J Sports Sci VL - 22 IS - 1 N2 - The amounts of water, carbohydrate and salt that athletes are advised to ingest during exercise are based upon their effectiveness in attenuating both fatigue as well as illness due to hyperthermia, dehydration or hyperhydration. When possible, fluid should be ingested at rates that most closely match sweating rate. When that is not possible or practical or sufficiently ergogenic, some athletes might tolerate body water losses amounting to 2% of body weight without significant risk to physical well-being or performance when the environment is cold (e.g. 5-10 degrees C) or temperate (e.g. 21-22 degrees C). However, when exercising in a hot environment (> 30 degrees C), dehydration by 2% of body weight impairs absolute power production and predisposes individuals to heat injury. Fluid should not be ingested at rates in excess of sweating rate and thus body water and weight should not increase during exercise. Fatigue can be reduced by adding carbohydrate to the fluids consumed so that 30-60 g of rapidly absorbed carbohydrate are ingested throughout each hour of an athletic event. Furthermore, sodium should be included in fluids consumed during exercise lasting longer than 2 h or by individuals during any event that stimulates heavy sodium loss (more than 3-4 g of sodium). Athletes do not benefit by ingesting glycerol, amino acids or alleged precursors of neurotransmitter. Ingestion of other substances during exercise, with the possible exception of caffeine, is discouraged. Athletes will benefit the most by tailoring their individual needs for water, carbohydrate and salt to the specific challenges of their sport, especially considering the environment's impact on sweating and heat stress. SN - 0264-0414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14971432/Fluid_and_fuel_intake_during_exercise_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0264041031000140545 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -