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Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (1):CD002848CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Rotaviruses cause viral gastroenteritis and result in more deaths from diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age than any other single agent, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

OBJECTIVES

To assess rotavirus vaccines in relation to preventing rotavirus diarrhoea, death, and adverse events.

SEARCH STRATEGY

We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trial register (October 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2003), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2003), LILACS (1982 to October 2003), Biological Abstracts (January 1982 to October 2003), reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers and rotavirus vaccine manufacturers.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Randomized controlled trials comparing rotavirus vaccines to placebo, no intervention, or other rotavirus vaccines in children and adults.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial methodological quality, and contacted trial authors for additional information.

MAIN RESULTS

Sixty-four trials provided information on efficacy and safety of three main types of rotavirus vaccine (bovine, human, and rhesus) for 21,070 children. Different levels of efficacy were demonstrated with different vaccines varying from 22 to 89% to prevent one episode of rotavirus diarrhoea, 11 to 44% to prevent one episode of all-cause diarrhoea, and 43 to 90% to prevent one episode of severe rotavirus diarrhoea. Rhesus vaccine demonstrated a similar efficacy against one episode of rotavirus diarrhoea (37 and 44% respectively), and one episode of all-cause diarrhoea (around 15%) for trials performed in high and middle-income countries. Results on mortality and safety of the vaccines were scarce and incomplete. We noticed important heterogeneity among the pooled studies and were unable to discard a biased estimation of effect.

REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS

Current evidence shows that rhesus rotavirus vaccines (particularly RRV-TV) and the human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 are efficacious in preventing diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea. Evidence about safety, and about mortality or prevention of severe outcomes, is scarce and inconclusive. Bovine rotavirus vaccines were also efficacious, but safety data are not available. Trials of new rotavirus vaccines will hopefully improve the evidence base. Randomized controlled trials should be performed simultaneously in high-, middle-, and low-income countries.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Social Work, Bar Ilan University, 82 Jerusalem Street, Kfar-Saba, Israel.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14973994

Citation

Soares-Weiser, K, et al. "Rotavirus Vaccine for Preventing Diarrhoea." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004, p. CD002848.
Soares-Weiser K, Goldberg E, Tamimi G, et al. Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004.
Soares-Weiser, K., Goldberg, E., Tamimi, G., Pitan, O. C., & Leibovici, L. (2004). Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1), p. CD002848.
Soares-Weiser K, et al. Rotavirus Vaccine for Preventing Diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1)CD002848. PubMed PMID: 14973994.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Rotavirus vaccine for preventing diarrhoea. AU - Soares-Weiser,K, AU - Goldberg,E, AU - Tamimi,G, AU - Pitan,O C, AU - Leibovici,L, PY - 2004/2/20/pubmed PY - 2004/6/30/medline PY - 2004/2/20/entrez SP - CD002848 EP - CD002848 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses cause viral gastroenteritis and result in more deaths from diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age than any other single agent, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess rotavirus vaccines in relation to preventing rotavirus diarrhoea, death, and adverse events. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's trial register (October 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2003), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2003), LILACS (1982 to October 2003), Biological Abstracts (January 1982 to October 2003), reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers and rotavirus vaccine manufacturers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing rotavirus vaccines to placebo, no intervention, or other rotavirus vaccines in children and adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial methodological quality, and contacted trial authors for additional information. MAIN RESULTS: Sixty-four trials provided information on efficacy and safety of three main types of rotavirus vaccine (bovine, human, and rhesus) for 21,070 children. Different levels of efficacy were demonstrated with different vaccines varying from 22 to 89% to prevent one episode of rotavirus diarrhoea, 11 to 44% to prevent one episode of all-cause diarrhoea, and 43 to 90% to prevent one episode of severe rotavirus diarrhoea. Rhesus vaccine demonstrated a similar efficacy against one episode of rotavirus diarrhoea (37 and 44% respectively), and one episode of all-cause diarrhoea (around 15%) for trials performed in high and middle-income countries. Results on mortality and safety of the vaccines were scarce and incomplete. We noticed important heterogeneity among the pooled studies and were unable to discard a biased estimation of effect. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence shows that rhesus rotavirus vaccines (particularly RRV-TV) and the human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 are efficacious in preventing diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and all-cause diarrhoea. Evidence about safety, and about mortality or prevention of severe outcomes, is scarce and inconclusive. Bovine rotavirus vaccines were also efficacious, but safety data are not available. Trials of new rotavirus vaccines will hopefully improve the evidence base. Randomized controlled trials should be performed simultaneously in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14973994/Rotavirus_vaccine_for_preventing_diarrhoea_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002848.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -