Prevalence of serum IgE antibodies to the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SAE, SEB, SEC, SED, TSST-1) in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis.Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004 Mar; 133(3):261-6.IA
Enterotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and their specific IgE antibodies were thought to be important in worsening atopic dermatitis. However, few studies have documented an association between S. aureus or its exotoxins and exacerbations of upper airway/nasal disease. In the current study, we determined the prevalence of serum-specific IgE towards staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, C, D (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) in patients suffering from rhinitis and/or asthma due to allergy. Therefore, we examined whether SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1 were important in worsening the clinical status of patients allergic to house dust mites by means of assessing serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which is thought to be a reliable marker of asthma and rhinitis severity.
198 patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and/or asthma due to house dust mites were evaluated. Specific IgE towards SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, TSST-1, timothy grass and birch pollen recombinant allergens, and other aeroallergen extracts from common allergen sources were evaluated by the Pharmacia CAP System. Serum ECP was assessed, too.
The percentages of sensitization to staphylococcal enterotoxins of 198 house dust mite-allergic patients were as follows: TSST-1-specific IgE 24.7% (n=49), SEC-specific IgE 22.2% (n=44), SEB-specific IgE 15.1% (n=30), SEA-specific IgE 9.1% (n=18), and SED-specific IgE 5.5% (n=11). Out of 198 individuals allergic to house dust mites 136 patients suffering from persistent rhinitis were subdivided into two subgroups: 53 patients with serum-specific IgE to at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin and 83 patients without specific IgE towards staphylococcal enterotoxins. Patients sensitive to staphylococcal enterotoxins had higher serum ECP levels than patients lacking specific IgE to SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1(geometric mean 24.3 vs. 16.6 microg/100 ml; p=0.029), as well as total IgE levels (geometric mean 564 vs. 161 kU/l, p=0.00063) and specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (geometric mean 16.7 vs. 6.6 kU/l; p=0.0235) and Dermatophagoides farinae (geometric mean 18.6 vs. 7.8 kU/l; p=0.0246).
A status of sensitization to staphylococcal enterotoxins seems to be a factor increasing serum ECP, which is thought to be a reliable marker of clinical severity of allergic disease. Therefore, the evaluation of SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1-specific IgE antibodies may have additional significance for the prognosis of persistent allergic diseases of the upper airway.